1. crime” (Department of Child Protection, 2012, p.2).



These days, it is very easy
to meet the term “domestic violence” in means of media. Children Welfare
Information Gateway (2014) has asserted that domestic violence is expressed in
many actions of a person such as physical, sexual, emotional, economic or
psychological actions that affect his or her partner in relationship like
marriage, dating or family. In fact, Bagshaw & Chung (2000, as cited in
Department for Child Proctection, 2012) state that most of those causing
domestic violence are men (90 per cent) and around 95 per cent of those suffering
torture are women. There has been a number of surveys in Australian (Department
of Child Protection, 2012) show that one in four children grow up seeing their
mother be brutalized by their father. It is quite clear to recognize that
domestic violence has been becoming a worldwide issue. Therefore, this research
paper, with the purpose of enhancing reader’s knowledge about domestic
violence, examines the adverse effects and comprehensive solutions of this

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Discussion of findings

2.1.  Background knowledge
of domestic violence

The concept of domestic violence

In fact, there are a number
of researchers who have stated their opinions and defined the concept of
domestic violence in many ways. “Family and domestic violence is a gendered
crime” (Department of Child Protection, 2012, p.2). In general, domestic
violence can be described as an action of using power by a person to frighten
and take control another in a relationship through violence or other types of
abuse (Kaur & Garg, 2008). This issue contains many performances that
intimate, humiliate, frighten, threaten, hurt or wound somebody (Children
Welfare Information Gateway, 2014). This means that abusers can take over their
sufferers and get their way simply by using physical and sexual force,
emotional insults, menace and economic deprivation (Susan, 2005, as cited in
Kaur & Garg, 2008).

Reality of domestic violence

It can be clearly seen that domestic
violence has been exploding all over the world up to now. Department for Child
Proctection (2012) stated that almost all the victims of domestic violence, 95%,
were female, and the proportion of men who resulted in domestic violence were
also in an overwhelming majority (90%). There were a number of surveys in
Australian (Indermaur, 2001, as cited in Department of Child Protection, 2012)
showed that one in four children grew up seeing their mother be brutalized by
their father. A survey of 3,856 adults throughout Northern Ireland also expressed
that the percentage of women suffered from family violence was nearly twice as
much as men, at 18% and 10% in turn (Devaney, 2015). Moreover, it was exposed
that 19,000 Northern Ireland children frequenly encountered domestic violence
at home. Move to another country in Asia, India, many studies in this country
expressed that around 76% of female was reported to be physically assaulted,
22% of physically assaulted women was at childbearing age, and 34% of pregnant
women needed medical treatments (Mahajan & Madhurima, 1995; Narayana, 1996;
Rao, 1997, as cited in Sharma, 2015). Continuing with Africa, Alokan (2013)
found that in Nigeria, approximately a half of women was battered by their
husband. Surprisingly, most of them did not intend to report the terrible
situation that they were facing to the Nigeria Police. According to Wathen, MacGregor and MacQuirre (2015), a
report of 8,429 participants in Canada showed that more than a third of them also
suffered from domestic violence. Overall, domestic violence has been
becoming more and more popuar in every single areas of the world nowadays and
resulting in many bad effects for human beings.

2.2.  Adverse effects of
domestic violence

Effects on adult victims

There are many consequences
which adult casualties have to experience during domestic violence. They
contains physical wound, chronic health problems, emotional distress and
financial decrease (Faulkner, Cutler & Slatter, 2008; World Health
Organisation, 2000, as cited in Department for Child Protection 2012).

Mature victims must encounter 
physical injury when they are at home and face perpetrators. Alokan (2013)
stated that domestic violence was likely to lead to many acute impacts
requiring medical treatment and hospitalization like welt, wrecked bones,
headaches, lacerations and wound. Beside physical injury, chronic health
effect is also one of the impacts resulting from domestic violence. In fact, victims
who confronted domestic violence usually suffered from some chronic health
diseases such as inflammation of articulation and irritable bowel syndrome (Berrios,1991,
as cited in Alokan, 2013). Alokan (2013) also commented that pregnant mothers
who were in a domestic violence relationship might agonize greater danger of wound,
injury or even foetus’s dealth. In domestic violence, victims must face
emotional distress. In deed, a significant proportion of casualties, 60%, faced
depression and even suicided due to domestic violence (Alokan, 2013). As a
result, women were prevented to escape from domestic violence. They were afraid
of their ability to deal with the offender, their result if they ran away,
especially “shared care” for their children (Patton, 2003, as cited in Kaur
& Garg, 2008). Apart from
three consequences above, victims must know how to address financial problems.
A survey among 2831 participants conducted by Wathen, MacGregor and MacQuirre,
three researchers, in Canada in 2015 showed that a majority of them (81%) said
that their work performance was negatively influenced because of being
disturbed and feeling tired, 38% got their capability to work prevented, and a
small proportion of them (8,5%) lost their jobs due to domestic violence.

Effects on Children

In domestic violence,
children is the most pitiful victim in the termination of relationship of their
parents. In fact,  many researchers have
reported that children suffering from domestic violence during their childhood
may grow up with serious psychological, behavioural, developmental or
educational problems.

Children will absolutely
become more and more aggressive if they see their mother being tortured by
their father. Witnessing domestic violence at home, they were tendencious to
use violence at school or in public because they thought that there was no
problems if they hurt other people or allowed others to hurt them (Kaur & Garg,

According to Barnett, Vondra and Shark (1996, as cited in Rupande, 2015),
children perceiving domestic violence might tolerate phobias, depression and shortage of social
communication and problem solving ability. Rupande (2015) commented that
children would turn out to be afraid of adults, making friend, and they might
use violence to cope with problems which they had to encounter. His research
paper also stated that 30% of children who were in domestic violence were
likely to use drug, improve emotional problems like depression or even suicide.

No one can deny that poor
educational performance is one of the most negative results of domestic
violence on children. A survey of Wildin, Williamson, and Wilson (1991, as
cited in Rupande, 2015) about children’s academic accomplishment in Kushinga
Phikelela showed that nearly a half of children bearing domestic violence had low marks and grade
recurrence at school or even needed
special school services.

Overall, domestic violence has been creating various horrible
consequences to not only adults victims but also children. Therefore, every single person
should try their best to help sufferers overcome this issue.

2.3.  Solutions for
domestic violence

First of all, everyone must sympathize
with victims of domestic violence and make them feel being supported
(Department of Defence, 2017). One possible way is create a supportive and safe
atmosphere in workplace for sufferers. In fact, domestic violence victims
usually keep everything with them and do not share with other people.
Therefore, we should talk and share with them about our daily life first. Day
by day, they will feel more comfortable and willing to share their problems
with us. By doing this, we can help them to have a better workplace atmosphere
and forget about horrible things which they have to face when they are at home.

Second, Department of
Defence (2017) also states that domestic violence can be solved if we develope
help seeking behaviours for those standing domestic violence. It was extremely
important for the government to examine the police frequently to make sure that
they were flexible and willing to help domestic violence victims whenever they
needed (Brooks, 2011). Moreover, all staff should be trained to gain efficient
skills to cope with victims’ problems. It would be a good idea if government
and non-government organizations have strategies to encourage casualties to
join their community, upgrade them with aspects of domestic violence and provide
them with services.

Last but not least, it is
essential  for each individual to enhance
their own knowledge about domestic violence. Everyone who is tolerating
domestic violence must know that this issue is unacceptable anywhere, and they should
increase their awareness in every aspects of this problem by watching
television, reading book, attending organizations to gain updated information so
that they can overcome it and have a better life (Department of Defence, 2017).


In recent years, family and
domestic violence has extended and become a serious and grave issue in many
parts of the world. It results in the number of extreme consequences for not
only adult victims but also the children. Therefore, it is particularly
essential that the victim, the government and also the non-victim should
understand thoroughly about domestic violence and try their best to prevent the
development of this worldwide problem for a better community.