1] root nodules. Thus, all parts of groundnut

1 INTRODUCTION

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together
moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood,  grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Paper is a versatile material with many
uses. While the most common is for writing and printing , it is also widely
used as a packaging material, in many cleaning products, in a number of
industrial and even as a food ingredient — particularly in Asian
cultures. Paper and the pulp papermaking process, was said to be developed in
China during the early 2nd century AD.

          
Groundnut is also of value as rotation
crop. As it is the plant, it improves soil nutrients, due to the presence
of atmospheric nitrogen fixing bacteria in
its root nodules. Thus,
all parts of groundnut plant are fully useful. Groundnut shell has great
potential for commercial use. Groundnut shell is used as a fuel, filler in
cattle feed, hard particleboard, activated carbon, etc. The groundnut shell
fibres possess good physical strength properties. The higher pentosan content together with gums of some species of groundnut plant may be a
suitable source for producing paper.

2PULPING

It is important process for  producing paper. Pulping is the process
of production of pulp using wood material which is a lignocellulose fibrous
material(in our case it is
groundnut shells). It is prepared by taking the various chemicals in their desired proportion
so as to form a proper solution and then heating it at very high temperatures
for almost 3 to 4 hours.

 

2.1 Raw
Materials

 Generally,
woods are two types. Hard woods and Soft woods. 
These woods contain basically two materials in them.

They are:

1. Cellulose

2. Lignin

 

The cellulose present in wood is mostly in the form of
fibres. The cellulose fibres are obtained as pulp after pulping process.
Cellulose fibre is a long chain of single monomer C6H10O5.

 

 

 

2.2
Methods of Pulping

 Many processes
came into existence for production of pulp from wood materials in past decades. These methods work differently based on the quality of pulp obtained
after the process and also based on their efficiencies and also the heat energy that is required for pulping
process. Mainly there are 2 methods.

2.3
Preparation for Pulp:

 Wood chipping
is the act and industry of chipping wood for pulp but in our case we require crushed,clean and dried
groundnut shells.Only the heartwood and sapwood are useful
for making pulp. Most pulping processes require that the groundnut shells 
be crushed uniformly and evenly to get a good quality of pulp.

2.3.1. Chemical pulping:

 Chemical pulp
is produced by combining small pieces of groundnut shells and chemicals in
large vessels
known as digesters where heat and the chemicals break down the
lignin,  without seriously degrading the
cellulose fibres. Chemical pulp is used for materials that need to be stronger
or combined with mechanical pulps  to produce different
characteristics.

3 MATERIALS AND CHEMICALS

Groundnut botanically known as Arachishypogaea
belongs to leguminous family. It is the fourth largest oil seed produced in
world and India is the second largest producer of groundnut after china.
A complete seed of groundnut is called as pod and outer layer of groundnut is
called shell. Almost every part of groundnut is of commercial value. Groundnut
seeds are nutritionally rich due to the presence of oil, protein, minerals,
vitamins etc. As a result, it is often described as ‘Poor man’s Badam’.
There is versatility with respect to the groundnut seed consumption, since it
is consumed in raw or roasted or salted or sweetened states in Indian food
preparations.

3.2
Chemicals

Sodium carbonate(Na2CO3), Sodium
Hydroxide(NaOH), Sodium Sulphide(Na2S),

4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION OF PULP

4.1
Preparation of raw material

Initially Groundnut Shells are taken and washed
several times with water to remove dust and soil particles present on it. Later
it is crushed
into short and tiny  pieces. They are crushed
to remove water content and later dried at 80ºC to 90°C for about 40-50 minutes to further reduce the water
content.

 

4.2
Kraft’s Pulping

For cooking liquor to be prepared chemicals must be
taken in right proportions so that effective cooking would happen. Kraft’s
pulping consists of following chemicals-

NaOH, Na2SO4, and Na2CO3.

These three chemicals must combine to give total of
12.5% by weight solution. In this 12.5% of solution, according to Kraft’s
pulping we took 58.6%
 of NaOH, -27.1% of Na2SO4, and -14.3% of Na2CO3.

But if we take  basis as 1000 ml solution of cooking liquor,
then by taking 12.5%
by weight we got  125 grams
which was the
total weight of all three chemicals required. Compositions of solids are given
by wt.%. Then we
calculated
the individual weight of chemicals required, they were :

 NaOH
weight=0.586×125=73.25grams.

 Na2SO4
weight=0.271×125=33.875grams.

 Na2CO3
weight=0.143×125=17.875grams.

Digesting:

Once the cooking liquor was prepared we took 400ml of it separately in a 100ml beaker to which
5 grams of raw material (dried banana stem) was added and the level was marked. The reason for marking the
level is described below. Industrially, steam is used for heating purpose.
There are two reasons for selecting steam as heating source:

1. Firstly, it would serve as the heating medium
for the digester.

2. Secondly, once the steam exchanges heat with the
cooking liquor and the raw material the water present in the cooking liquor
evaporates due to increase in temperature difference. Then the initial
concentration of the cooking liquor is not maintained which would result in
weak cooking. So, if steam is used, it condenses into the cooking liquor after
exchanging heat, thereby maintaining the concentration of the cooking liquor.

Here, we had not used
steam
as heating source. If heat is continuously supplied the water present in the
cooking liquor evaporates there by initial concentration of the cooking liquor
is varied. So to
bring back the concentration to initial we added  water up to the marked level in the beaker.
This was  taken care by us throughout the process of digesting.
Then we sulpplied heat
by
means of hot plate for about 4hr 30min at a temperature of 90ºC. At the same
time we did stirring
continuously throughout the process. In the process of digestion the strong
basic cooking liquor and the action of heat combine and help breaking the bonds
in lignin molecules. The broken lignin molecules dissolve in cooking liquor
there by turning it into dark brown colour called as Black liquor and
cellulose remains unaltered which is present in the cooking
medium as brown stock along with the traces of lignin.

4.4 Soda
Pulping

In this process, 40% by weight solution of NaOH is
required as cooking liquor. If we take 1000ml as basis 40% by weight gives 400grams of NaOH. These 400 grams of NaOH is dissolved in
water and makeup to 1000ml to give required concentration of cooking liquor.
Once the cooking liquor is prepared, 5 to 7 grams of raw material is taken in 800ml of cooking liquor in 1000ml
beaker and the level is marked. The reason for the marking the level is already
described above in Kraft’s process (we performed the Kraft’s process). The same reason applies
here too. And water must be added continuously to maintain the initial
concentration of the cooking liquor and this process must be repeated entire
boiling time.

4.5
Filtration and washing of pulp

After digesting, brown stock and black liquor are
formed. Brown stock contains pulp
and small
amounts of lignin .
This lignin gives brown colour
to it. And
the black liquor contains the dissolved lignin and cooking chemicals that can be recovered. Then the mixture is filtered using cloth to
obtain black liquor as waste that contains cooking chemicals that can be
recovered. Only one time
filtration is not enough . So, we did filtration once again . We again washed  it with
water to let lignin and chemicals associated with the brown stock to dissolve
in it completely.
And,after that we got a good
and filtered form of it. We washed it again with water (1000ml) to reduce the
lignin content by about 5 times. Finally, the product obtained had less lignin content in
it.

4.6
Bleaching

Once  our filtration and washing was completed we dissolved the washed pulp in 200ml of water to which 5grams
bleaching powder was added
to completely remove the brown colour to obtain white
paper grade pulp.

 

4.7 Drying

 To find the
yield, we removed  entire water in the
bleached pulp .To
remove entire water content in the bleached pulp, it is dried at a temperature
of 100ºC for one hour in hot air oven.

5 Paper from Pulp

Once the pulp is ready,
it is then used to make paper in a process that is quite similar (in the basic actions) to
the process first used by the
ancient Chinese more than 1,900 years ago. We spray
the pulp mixture onto a flat and smooth surface to make a layered
mat. The mat of pulp is then heated 
to remove water and  then dry it out. Finally, we compressed it into one
continuous roll of paper. When the paper has the desired thickness, it may be
coloured or coated with special chemicals to give it a special texture, extra
strength, or water resistance. We got a packaging paper from it.

 

6 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

Firstly,
 we require only 4hr 30min in Kraft’s process to break
lignin molecules completely. Secondly, Kraft’s process consists of
strong cooking liquor which can break the lignin more effectively.
Whereas soda process consist of weak cooking liquor. Because of this
reason we can find the traces
of lignin
is more in Soda process than Kraft’s process.

We compared the
products from the two processes and got the conclusions.
The pulp obtained in Kraft process in less dark in colour it contains less lignin content in it due to
strong basic nature of the solution which break the lignin bonds. Soda process involves
weak basic cooking liquor that acts weak in breaking lignin bonds.

7 CONCLUSION

After experiment we made the following conclusions:

1. Soda
process reguires only one (limited) chemicals 
but it does not help in complete breakage of lignin bonds. On the other
hand Kraft’s process requires different chemicals  but in fewer amounts and the lignin breakage
is also proper.From this we can conclude that Kraft’s  process is more advantageous.

2. In terms of heat requirement Kraft’s process is more advantageous, because the cooking liquor in this process is able to break and
dissolve the lignin in it. Soda process is supplied with heat for one hour more
and still the cooking liquor could not effectively break the lignin.

3. Pulp obtained after washing is added with bleaching
agent. The amount of bleaching agent required is more in Soda process when
compared to Kraft’s process.
So, the pulp obtained in Kraft’s
process can be used for high grade paper production and that obtained for soda process f1 INTRODUCTION

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together
moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood,  grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Paper is a versatile material with many
uses. While the most common is for writing and printing , it is also widely
used as a packaging material, in many cleaning products, in a number of
industrial and even as a food ingredient — particularly in Asian
cultures. Paper and the pulp papermaking process, was said to be developed in
China during the early 2nd century AD.

          
Groundnut is also of value as rotation
crop. As it is the plant, it improves soil nutrients, due to the presence
of atmospheric nitrogen fixing bacteria in
its root nodules. Thus,
all parts of groundnut plant are fully useful. Groundnut shell has great
potential for commercial use. Groundnut shell is used as a fuel, filler in
cattle feed, hard particleboard, activated carbon, etc. The groundnut shell
fibres possess good physical strength properties. The higher pentosan content together with gums of some species of groundnut plant may be a
suitable source for producing paper.

2PULPING

It is important process for  producing paper. Pulping is the process
of production of pulp using wood material which is a lignocellulose fibrous
material(in our case it is
groundnut shells). It is prepared by taking the various chemicals in their desired proportion
so as to form a proper solution and then heating it at very high temperatures
for almost 3 to 4 hours.

 

2.1 Raw
Materials

 Generally,
woods are two types. Hard woods and Soft woods. 
These woods contain basically two materials in them.

They are:

1. Cellulose

2. Lignin

 

The cellulose present in wood is mostly in the form of
fibres. The cellulose fibres are obtained as pulp after pulping process.
Cellulose fibre is a long chain of single monomer C6H10O5.

 

 

 

2.2
Methods of Pulping

 Many processes
came into existence for production of pulp from wood materials in past decades. These methods work differently based on the quality of pulp obtained
after the process and also based on their efficiencies and also the heat energy that is required for pulping
process. Mainly there are 2 methods.

2.3
Preparation for Pulp:

 Wood chipping
is the act and industry of chipping wood for pulp but in our case we require crushed,clean and dried
groundnut shells.Only the heartwood and sapwood are useful
for making pulp. Most pulping processes require that the groundnut shells 
be crushed uniformly and evenly to get a good quality of pulp.

2.3.1. Chemical pulping:

 Chemical pulp
is produced by combining small pieces of groundnut shells and chemicals in
large vessels
known as digesters where heat and the chemicals break down the
lignin,  without seriously degrading the
cellulose fibres. Chemical pulp is used for materials that need to be stronger
or combined with mechanical pulps  to produce different
characteristics.

3 MATERIALS AND CHEMICALS

Groundnut botanically known as Arachishypogaea
belongs to leguminous family. It is the fourth largest oil seed produced in
world and India is the second largest producer of groundnut after china.
A complete seed of groundnut is called as pod and outer layer of groundnut is
called shell. Almost every part of groundnut is of commercial value. Groundnut
seeds are nutritionally rich due to the presence of oil, protein, minerals,
vitamins etc. As a result, it is often described as ‘Poor man’s Badam’.
There is versatility with respect to the groundnut seed consumption, since it
is consumed in raw or roasted or salted or sweetened states in Indian food
preparations.

3.2
Chemicals

Sodium carbonate(Na2CO3), Sodium
Hydroxide(NaOH), Sodium Sulphide(Na2S),

4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE FOR PRODUCTION OF PULP

4.1
Preparation of raw material

Initially Groundnut Shells are taken and washed
several times with water to remove dust and soil particles present on it. Later
it is crushed
into short and tiny  pieces. They are crushed
to remove water content and later dried at 80ºC to 90°C for about 40-50 minutes to further reduce the water
content.

 

4.2
Kraft’s Pulping

For cooking liquor to be prepared chemicals must be
taken in right proportions so that effective cooking would happen. Kraft’s
pulping consists of following chemicals-

NaOH, Na2SO4, and Na2CO3.

These three chemicals must combine to give total of
12.5% by weight solution. In this 12.5% of solution, according to Kraft’s
pulping we took 58.6%
 of NaOH, -27.1% of Na2SO4, and -14.3% of Na2CO3.

But if we take  basis as 1000 ml solution of cooking liquor,
then by taking 12.5%
by weight we got  125 grams
which was the
total weight of all three chemicals required. Compositions of solids are given
by wt.%. Then we
calculated
the individual weight of chemicals required, they were :

 NaOH
weight=0.586×125=73.25grams.

 Na2SO4
weight=0.271×125=33.875grams.

 Na2CO3
weight=0.143×125=17.875grams.

Digesting:

Once the cooking liquor was prepared we took 400ml of it separately in a 100ml beaker to which
5 grams of raw material (dried banana stem) was added and the level was marked. The reason for marking the
level is described below. Industrially, steam is used for heating purpose.
There are two reasons for selecting steam as heating source:

1. Firstly, it would serve as the heating medium
for the digester.

2. Secondly, once the steam exchanges heat with the
cooking liquor and the raw material the water present in the cooking liquor
evaporates due to increase in temperature difference. Then the initial
concentration of the cooking liquor is not maintained which would result in
weak cooking. So, if steam is used, it condenses into the cooking liquor after
exchanging heat, thereby maintaining the concentration of the cooking liquor.

Here, we had not used
steam
as heating source. If heat is continuously supplied the water present in the
cooking liquor evaporates there by initial concentration of the cooking liquor
is varied. So to
bring back the concentration to initial we added  water up to the marked level in the beaker.
This was  taken care by us throughout the process of digesting.
Then we sulpplied heat
by
means of hot plate for about 4hr 30min at a temperature of 90ºC. At the same
time we did stirring
continuously throughout the process. In the process of digestion the strong
basic cooking liquor and the action of heat combine and help breaking the bonds
in lignin molecules. The broken lignin molecules dissolve in cooking liquor
there by turning it into dark brown colour called as Black liquor and
cellulose remains unaltered which is present in the cooking
medium as brown stock along with the traces of lignin.

4.4 Soda
Pulping

In this process, 40% by weight solution of NaOH is
required as cooking liquor. If we take 1000ml as basis 40% by weight gives 400grams of NaOH. These 400 grams of NaOH is dissolved in
water and makeup to 1000ml to give required concentration of cooking liquor.
Once the cooking liquor is prepared, 5 to 7 grams of raw material is taken in 800ml of cooking liquor in 1000ml
beaker and the level is marked. The reason for the marking the level is already
described above in Kraft’s process (we performed the Kraft’s process). The same reason applies
here too. And water must be added continuously to maintain the initial
concentration of the cooking liquor and this process must be repeated entire
boiling time.

4.5
Filtration and washing of pulp

After digesting, brown stock and black liquor are
formed. Brown stock contains pulp
and small
amounts of lignin .
This lignin gives brown colour
to it. And
the black liquor contains the dissolved lignin and cooking chemicals that can be recovered. Then the mixture is filtered using cloth to
obtain black liquor as waste that contains cooking chemicals that can be
recovered. Only one time
filtration is not enough . So, we did filtration once again . We again washed  it with
water to let lignin and chemicals associated with the brown stock to dissolve
in it completely.
And,after that we got a good
and filtered form of it. We washed it again with water (1000ml) to reduce the
lignin content by about 5 times. Finally, the product obtained had less lignin content in
it.

4.6
Bleaching

Once  our filtration and washing was completed we dissolved the washed pulp in 200ml of water to which 5grams
bleaching powder was added
to completely remove the brown colour to obtain white
paper grade pulp.

 

4.7 Drying

 To find the
yield, we removed  entire water in the
bleached pulp .To
remove entire water content in the bleached pulp, it is dried at a temperature
of 100ºC for one hour in hot air oven.

5 Paper from Pulp

Once the pulp is ready,
it is then used to make paper in a process that is quite similar (in the basic actions) to
the process first used by the
ancient Chinese more than 1,900 years ago. We spray
the pulp mixture onto a flat and smooth surface to make a layered
mat. The mat of pulp is then heated 
to remove water and  then dry it out. Finally, we compressed it into one
continuous roll of paper. When the paper has the desired thickness, it may be
coloured or coated with special chemicals to give it a special texture, extra
strength, or water resistance. We got a packaging paper from it.

 

6 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

Firstly,
 we require only 4hr 30min in Kraft’s process to break
lignin molecules completely. Secondly, Kraft’s process consists of
strong cooking liquor which can break the lignin more effectively.
Whereas soda process consist of weak cooking liquor. Because of this
reason we can find the traces
of lignin
is more in Soda process than Kraft’s process.

We compared the
products from the two processes and got the conclusions.
The pulp obtained in Kraft process in less dark in colour it contains less lignin content in it due to
strong basic nature of the solution which break the lignin bonds. Soda process involves
weak basic cooking liquor that acts weak in breaking lignin bonds.

7 CONCLUSION

After experiment we made the following conclusions:

1. Soda
process reguires only one (limited) chemicals 
but it does not help in complete breakage of lignin bonds. On the other
hand Kraft’s process requires different chemicals  but in fewer amounts and the lignin breakage
is also proper.From this we can conclude that Kraft’s  process is more advantageous.

2. In terms of heat requirement Kraft’s process is more advantageous, because the cooking liquor in this process is able to break and
dissolve the lignin in it. Soda process is supplied with heat for one hour more
and still the cooking liquor could not effectively break the lignin.

3. Pulp obtained after washing is added with bleaching
agent. The amount of bleaching agent required is more in Soda process when
compared to Kraft’s process.
So, the pulp obtained in Kraft’s
process can be used for high grade paper production and that obtained for soda process for low grade
paper production . But as we interested in making packing paper
, so, the pulp must be entirely lignin free, because it acts as an impurity and
may vary the conditions of the packed material. By this we can conclude that
Kraft process is safer.or low grade
paper production . But as we interested in making packing paper
, so, the pulp must be entirely lignin free, because it acts as an impurity and
may vary the conditions of the packed material. By this we can conclude that
Kraft process is safer.