ABSTRACT

The

purpose of this paper is to describe about high order thinking skill in

matematic learning in primary school. High order thinking skills are absolutely

necessary for students to equip them in the context of 21st learning

century. In the primary school, the implementation is embedded in the

curriculum framework currently used to develop high order thinking skills in

the learning process. In addition, the competency of learning is also

affiliated with the achievement of 21st learning century skills. The

process of learning mathematics, is not purely only learn how to count in the

implementation of learning that done. This is in line with the high level of

expected competence related to the development of high order thinking skills by

referring to the development of 21st learning century contexts in

the primary school classes. This developed of high order thinking skills refers

to Bloom’s taxonomy that has been revised by Anderson, et.al. Based on these taxonomy, the high order thinking skills is

consists of from 3 levels of the 6 levels developed at levels 4 through 6.

These three levels among others, are: (1) analyze; (2) evaluation; (3) create.

These three levels in the cognitive domain are implemented through a series of

mathematics learning processes in primary school. In the process, the

development of cognitive abilities at such a high level can be implemented by

provising high order thinking skills challenges to enable meaningful learning

in the mathematics learning process in primary schools. The result of this

paper is we can know and understand at least about mathematical learning

process in primary school and how to develop high order thinking skill by

referring to the development of 21st century learning skills in

primary school classes.

Keywords: High order

thinking skill, mathematical learning, primary school

Introduction

The context of learning based in the development of the 2013 curriculum

that has been revised on 2026 is implemented to develop high order thinking

skills that are also capable of developing and optimizing 21st century learning

skills better known as 4C’s (collaboration, critical thinking and problem

solving, communication, and creativity) (Halah Ahmed Alismail, Vol 6, No.

6, 2015).

The implementation of the learning process refers to how students are

independently able to develop and optimize both competencies. It becomes a

reference to how the learning is carried out. Learning estates are implemented

taking into account the circumstances and condition of students related to student’s

physical and psychological learning readiness from the student.

The learning of the 21st century has major implications for the current

series of educational processes. This is due to a shift in the paradigm of

learning that is run. Its as an implication of the 21st century learning

context developed impacts on how the learning is carried out. The development

of the revised 2013’s curriculum in 2016 provides flexibility for teachers to

develop the learning process in the skills into one learning development

estates implemented.

Mathematics is one of several other subjects that students learn in primary

school. Among other subjects, mathematics has different characteristics as well

that is carried out. The integrated thematic learning process in primary school

doesn’t include mathematics in units of particular themes or the whole. It

affects the learning of mathematics which is carried out separately in the

class itself.

Learning maths in the primary school is conducted as an effort to provide

students with learning experiences related to mathematical skills that can be

developed. The concept and context of the learning that is conducted leads to

how students are able to independently develop mathematical competencies

provide benefits and help them to apply in practical life processes. It is a

conceptual framework that is projected about how mathematical material can be

teoretically developed in practice in the learning process.

The optimization of high order thinking skills in the

series of math learning process in primary school is a deffinitive effort to

asnwers the challenges and the development of the current era. The context of

learning in the 21st century is answered by the actualization of math learning

to develop and optimize high order thinking skills in the classroom. The

process of learning mathematics that not only develop the cognitive aspect as

the implementation of kwonledge also needs to be followed up by the

presentation of learning that is able to optimize and actualize the development

of affective, psychomotor, and cognitive fields simultaneously and

synergistically among the sphere in a conceptual framework implemented in step

by step learning mathematics especially in primary schools. thus, the high

ideals of the future will create a golden generation of 2045 competent in the

face and identify various phenomena of globalization is very complex with a

comprehensive capital learning experience.

High Order

Thinking Skills

High order thinking skills are one of several development concepts that

focus on being optimized in today’s learning processes. It makes this aspect

one of the few priority development concepts when the learning process is

implemented. Currently developed 2013 curriculum that has been revised in 2016

after experiencing benchmarking process with global level and has resulted in

learning competency mapping on core competence and basic competence of primary

and secondary education based on the regulation of the minister of education

and culture of the republic of indonesia. All core competence and basic

competence after benchmarking processes with existing global standards have

improved and developed in terms of factual, conceptual, procedural, and

metacognition knowledge within the framework of the curriculum formulated through

core competencies and basic competencies of primary and secondary schools.

Factual knowledge is a basic element that experts use in conveying,

understanding, and embracing their academic discliplines. Conceptual knowledge

os schemes, models, and explicit or implicit theories that demonstrate one’s

own knowledge can also be assumed as knowledge to solve problems. Procerural

knowledge involves specific skills, algorithms techniques, and methods. The

knowledge of metacognition is a personal awareness of a person, where more

emphasized to the students to always be aware and responsible for their

thinking independently (Penyusun, 2016).

Based on the development of the revised 2013 curriculum in 2016, the

development of a high order thinking skills context refers to Bloom’s taxonomy

revised by Anderson and Krathwohl in 2001. Based on cognitive levels, Bloom (as

Anderson and Krathwohl revised) (Krathwohl, 2001) divide cognitive level in six level,

including: (1) remembering; (2) understanding; (3) application; (4) analysis;

(5) evaluation; (6) create. From these six levels, identified into two types of

levels thinking is low order thinking skills (LOTS) and high order thinking

skills (HOTS). Hierarchically, the concept of high and low level thinking can

be seen in the following chart.

LOTS HOTS

Figure

1. Cognitive level based on the Bloom’s taxonomy (image only illustration)

(Revision Anderson, 2001).

Development of high order thinking skill can be developed

through a learning processes that stimulate student’s cognitive abilities

continually. The process is absolutely done through a series of of lessons that are

capable of delivering challenges and higher levels of thinking or above the

standard of thinking of existing student competencies. Thus, students will be

more accustomed to developing higher-order thinking skills in the context of

learning through the correlation of reality in the life processes they

experience. In this process, students should always be given a learning

presentation that is able to develop and optimize their analytical, evaluative,

and creative skills by adjusting the targeted learning competencies. In addition,

students also need to be given a variety of learning experiences that can enter

into their long-therm memory. So that, the learning process that can optimally

develop and optimize high order thinking skills through meaningfull learning

process.

The domain of cognitive ability development in high order

thinking skills is optimized through a process of learning that has a higher

level of thinking. In the process undertaken, students must be able to

independently perform the process undertaken, students mus be able to

independently perform the process of analysis, evaluate, and creating all

matters relating to the material that is currently being studied. For example,

at level C6 (creating) in the process of learning mathematics in the primary

school, students

are able to independently determine and find a solution to a mathematical

problem in its own way but still pay attention to the realm of completion of a

comprehensive problem. This is as can be found in the open-ended model that has

an alternative answer more than one. Of course there are many others atlernatives that can be

done to develop and optimize learning process that leads to the improvement and

development of high order thinking skills.

Math Learning in The Primary Schools

Learning process is carried out

to be able to provide learning experiences to students to be able to master and

optimize targeted learning compeencies. In primary school, math learning in one

of its development studies the concept of mathematics through conceptual investigation

(Frei, 2008). Nevertheless, the

praxis in mathematical learning concepts is developed in a step by step

learning that students learn praxis as learning.

In different concepts on

learning mathematics, if learning in the context of teaching by teachers, math

learning only gives one side of the idea in terhs of mathematical thinking.

That’s as Polya’s assumption in Cowan (Cowan, 2006) which states that

overall the activity of guessing nad developing math concepts of things not

seen arround students. It’s sometimes that makes the teacher neglectful to be

able to develop a variety of mathematical skills that can be actually be made

something interesting as a student’s learning experience. The math concept is

also useful for students as a provision

of experience in living and facing real life processes in life later. Thus,

learn math is not only limited to memorizing and applying math formula but

rather to how students with math knowledge and understanding are able to apply

in the process of daily life of math concepts in practical life in the real

life. It’s same as habituation process to make math as something include in

real life to help and solve their life’s problem and trouble.

Math learning sequences in

primary schools are developed with reference to some math concepts and skills.

The conceptual framework of own math learning in primary schools is developed

with the result of developing students’ math thinking skills. This ability is

an accumulation of the concept of thinking which indicates the development of

the ability: (1) understanding of math; (2) mathematical problem solving; (3)

mathematical reasoning; (4) mathematical connection; (5) mathematical

communication.

Learn math can make students

able to face their real life’s trouble. This concepts can be used practically

when student understanding math comprehensive. Math understanding is concerned

with the student’s ability to answer a math question accompanied by the reason

for the answer (why the student concerned assumes that the answer is true on a

logical basis). These reason can be definition of a concept, the use of models

and symbols to present concepts, the application of a simple calculation, the

completion of an algorithmic problem is done correctly and realized step by

step is done. According to Adjie and Maulana (Adjie, 2006), problem solving is

a process of acceptance of challenges and hard work to solve problem. Similar

disclosed Wahyudin (Wahyudin, 2012) states that probelm

solving is an integral part in learning

proces of math. Thus, problem solving can’t be made as a separate part of the

learning process undertaken. In learning math in particular, problem solving is

not only a goal of learning, but also as a way to do the learning process

itself.

Math connections were

popularized by NCTM in 1989 which stated that mathematics is not a partially

separate set of partially separate

topics and abilities. Although in reality mathematics is often partitioned

and studied in several brances ( (NCTM, 2000). Math is an integrated

science. With this assumption, math need to be viewed as a holistic whole. Looking

math as a whole is very important in learning and thinking about the connection

structure between topics in mathematics itself. The connection structure

between the branches of mathematics allows students to make analytical and

analytical mathematical reasoning.

Gilarso in Setyono (Setyono, 2008) states that reasoning is an explanation that shows the connection or

relationship between two or more things on a certain basis and with a certain

step up to one conclusion. The same thing is said Nico (Nico,

2012) which

states that reasoning is a thought to be able to produce a conclusion.

Mathematical communication is one

of the mathematical skills that are expected to be mastered by students.

Mathematical communication involves 3 aspects (Education, 2017), among others: (1)

using mathematical language accurately and using it to communicate aspects of

problem solving; (2) using accurate mathematical representation to communicate

problem solving; (2) present a well-organized and well-structured problem

solving.

Optimization of High-Level Thinking Skills in

Elementary Mathematics Learning

The optimal learning process can lead the students to understand the

targeted competencies as set forth in the learning objectives. Achievement of

quality learning process is created by all components of learning as whole

unity that has synergicity. Between components to create a series of optimal

learning process and quality. In that context, each learning component has its

own duties and roles in order to create a quality of educational process.

The consequence of learning process undertaken is need for the development

of learning material that really can develop high order thinking skills of

students. In addition, the cognitive dimension associated with the concept of

matter can be developed theoretically in the context of classroom chronological

learning praxis. So the ability to be developed by students is not only limited

to knowing and mastering math concept theoretically, but rather to how students

are abel to apply and implement the theoretical concepts of math material

learned in the context of field praxis as the process of life they experience

daily. Thus, the learning process that meaningfull learning really can be

implemented in real class in an optimal manner.

Learning is done to optimize the ability to analyze, evaluate, and create

is developed through the learning steps are compiled and implemented through

the steps of math learn in the classroom with a focus on learning affiliated

with the characteristics of developmental psychology and learning from the

students themselves. The factual and actual implementation of learning will

provide a valuable learning experience for students in order to make the

learning process meaningful.

Conclusion

The

learning that provides valuable experience to the students is the estuary of a

meaningful series of learning processes. This leads to how the development of

learning is implemented in order to create a 2045 gold generation that is ready

to face the reality and global phenomenon later. The development and

optimization of high-level thinking skills in the learning process of

mathematics brings new paradigm in the learning process undertaken. This

implies how the learning process is carried out with reference to the

development of students physically and psychologically. In addition, the

readiness factors of students both physically and psychologically need to be

considered related to how the learning process is implemented.

Mathematics

learning in primary schools as it is, is carried out by observing how students

are able to develop the process of thinking mathematically. In that context,

there is a wedge between what is developed in terms of high-level thinking

skills with students’ mathematical thinking. The development and optimization

of students’ ability to analyze,

evaluate, and create is aligned with how students are able to develop math

comprehension skills, mathematical problem solving, mathematical reasoning,

mathematical connections, and

mathematical communication.