ABSTRACT to cloud storage. Various data security problems

 

ABSTRACT

Cloud Computing has attracted
considerable attention in both industry and academic. It leads to gain effectiveness
deployment, efficiency development and pay on-demand in purchasing and
maintaining infrastructure. The resources stored in the cloud are managed by
the Cloud Service Provider. Even though, cloud computing provides more
advantages to the users, there exists security problem in cloud computing. The
data owner who outsources their critical data is unaware of how data being
stored in the cloud and who accessing their data. This arises many security
issues in cloud computing. In this paper a novel architecture is proposed to
reduce delay in One Time Password (OTP) based cloud Security. The OTP is
validated in network level when the requested device and OTP receiving device
are Identical.

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Keywords:- Cloud Computing, Security issues, Data
Security, OTP, Request Time.

 

I.                   
INTRODUCTION

Cloud Computing is an emerging technology and It is used to manipulating, configuring, and accessing the online applications
on demand. It also offers virtual data storage, infrastructure and application. It
combines both software and hardware based on computing resources delivered as a network service. These
days, distributed computing worldview can offer any possible type of
administrations, for example, computational assets for elite processing applications,
web administrations, long range interpersonal communication, and telecommunications
administrations. Likewise, distributed storage in server can be helpful for
clients to store and get to their information remotely anyplace whenever
without any extra weight. In any case, the major problem of cloud information
stockpiling is security. Hence, cloud server farms ought to have a few
components ready to determine capacity rightness and honesty of information put
away on a cloud.

Cloud
computing data storage security issues such as data privacy, integrity,
recoverability and vulnerability. Identity management and access control issues
in cloud computing to ensure data integrity and confidentiality were stated and
also service level agreements and legal issues related to data storage were
stressed. Finally, the possible solutions for all those issues were analysed by
comparing various existing security schemes and techniques 1. Data security
analysed the security challenges occurred in organization related to cloud
storage. Various data security problems in cloud such as confidentiality, integrity,
locality, breaches and access control were highlighted 2.

II.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 

Sultan Aldossary et al. 3
discussed cloud computing security issues such as data security, privacy,
availability and integrity. Elaborated data storage issues in cloud computing
and the solutions for those issues were analysed. Top threats of cloud
computing such as data loss, data breaches, malicious insider, insecure
interfaces and APIs were explained. An overview of virtualization security
issues was presented. The major data security issues namely data
confidentiality, integrity, availability was highlighted, solutions and ­­­­­techniques
to overcome the issues were also discussed. Ahmed Albugmi et al. 4 described
security risks and concerns in cloud computing such as virtualization, storage
in public cloud and multi-tenancy. Discussion on two states of data and its security
threats was made. Overviews of encryption techniques for data at rest and data
in transmit were explained. Some basic cryptographic techniques such as block
ciphers, stream ciphers, and hash functions were also explored. A detailed
analysis of existing data security techniques were done to secure the data over
the cloud.  Priya Iyer et al. 5 focused
on data security and privacy issues in cloud computing. Four cloud security
controls namely deterrent controls, preventive controls, detective controls and
corrective controls were described. Security issues related to cloud data
storage were discussed. Various data security problems in cloud such as data
integrity, data confidentiality were highlighted. Techniques to solve those
issues such as homomorphic encryption, hybrid techniques, and distributed
storage were analysed. Finally, some common security mechanisms were
summarized. Babitha et al. 6 described different privacy protection, data security
issues in cloud computing and also provided an overview of various encryption
techniques. They used AES algorithm for encryption to increase data security
and confidentiality. The proposed model includes Short Message Service (SMS)
alert to avoid malicious user access to the data. They analysed this model
based on delay and proved this gives the best data security in cloud
environment. Akshita Bhandari et al. 7 proposed a framework for data security
both in transmission and storage. The proposed model secured user data while
transferring and storing using classification of data, Hashed Message
Authentication and Index Building. They stated that this combination of
techniques provides greater security to the data. They compared this framework
with existing framework and shown it has better execution time.

Mrinal
Kanti Sarkar et al. 8 overviewed cloud data security issues and proposed a
framework to ensure data storage security in cloud computing. They also
discussed proposed key generation algorithm, encryption algorithm and
decryption algorithm. They stated that proposed framework has some special
features than the existing models. The analysed this model and proved that this
framework has feasibility, scalability and efficiency. Prabu Kanna et al. 9 proposed
hybrid encryption technique using RSA and ECC to enhance the security of user
data. They uses proxy re-encryption algorithm to encrypt the keyword. They
compared the proposed algorithm with the existing algorithm and proved that it
takes minimum execution time. Two phase encryption has done on user’s data to
ensure the security of the data stored in the cloud server. Shakeeba S. Khan et
al. 10 proposed a multilevel encryption technique to eliminate the data
privacy issue and to enhance the data security in cloud. The proposed technique
combines two different security algorithms such as DES and RSA. It allows only
the authorized user to access the data. They stated that this multilevel encryption
will provide more security for cloud storage than single level encryption. Arockiam
et al. 11 proposed a secured confidentiality techniques to ensure the data
security stored in the cloud. The proposed technic is based on the symmetric
key encryption algorithm. They describes this technique as Security as a
Service in cloud, which contains of three security service algorithms such as AROcrypt,
MONcrypt and AROMONcrypt. AROCrypt algorithm includes security service
algorithm and random number generation algorithm. They also compared the
proposed technic with other existing techniques and proved that it offers
better performance and maximum protection.

                Geeta Sharma et al. 12
proposed a scheme for data security in cloud computing. They discussed the
limitations of classical cryptography, quantum key distribution. The scheme
integrated Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm with Quantum
cryptography. They also compared this hybrid technique with other existing
algorithms and stated that this algorithm is suitable for high security
applications like government agencies, military etc. because this scheme
produces composite keys which are hard to envisage by adversaries. Boomija et
al. 13 proposed a method for secure data sharing in cloud computing. They
uses addictive similarity based ElGamal Like encryption which includes proxy
re-encryption capabilities to prevent the data from adversaries. They also
implemented the method using sample medical data in CloudSim and stated that
the proposed model is applicable for content distribution, electronic mail
forwarding and monitoring process. Arul Oli et al. 14 discussed security
issues in cloud storage and need for data security. They proposed a novel
approach using encryption technique and key management technique for secure cloud
storage. They described that the proposed method is used for improving data
confidentiality in cloud storage by enhancing dynamic sharing between users. They
specified that by protecting the confidentiality of data, the security of the
data is envisaged. Munwar Ali Zardhar et al. 15 proposed a data
classification approach to ensure data confidentiality in cloud computing. They
used K-NN data classification technique to classify the data based on cloud
security needs. They classified the data in the cloud based on sensitive and
non-sensitive data and then secured the sensitive data by using RSA algorithm.
They implemented their proposed technique using CloudSim and proved the
security of data in cloud storage.

                Yuhong et al. 16 elaborated data
security issues in cloud storage and proposed a new framework to ensure data
confidentiality in cloud computing. They integrated two techniques such as
encryption technique and trust-based technique to achieve secure cloud storage.
The proposed framework includes three components such as encryption model,
trust model and decision-making model which allows CSUs to encrypt the
sensitive data before storing it in the cloud and checks for data correctness
from time to time. Khaleed M.Khan et al. 17 discussed the importance of data confidentiality
in cloud computing and proposed an approach for secure transmission of matrix
multiplication over cloud networking using randomisation, column-row shifting
and size alteration of matrices. They also discussed data hiding protocols and
data retrieving protocols. Arockiam et al. 18 proposed a confidentiality
technique to ensure secure storage in cloud computing. They used obfuscation
technique to strengthen the numerical data in public cloud storage. The
numerical data gets encrypted before uploading into cloud storage. They used
cryptographic techniques and five different mathematical operations to ensure
the security of numerical data in cloud computing. Malek Najib Omar et al. 19
discussed virtualization for cloud computing, security feebleness of cloud
computing. The proposed technique used biometric encryption to ensure data
confidentiality in biometric data. They stated that biometric encryption uses
high level security against confidentiality and privacy issues and it was
mainly used for ensuring biometric data in cloud computing.

3. Cloud security

System
security, data security and numerous other security sorts like the PC security
together make articulation “Cloud Security” since it include the
larger piece of the security framework. It gives the sweeping arrangement of
developments, approaches and controls that are utilized to secure the
information and applications exist with the distributed computing condition. It
is not the consequence of PC security like unfriendly to infections and against
spam’s. Security is the most concerning point to any administration. External
security or interior security required to each field. Just security ensures the
protection and uprightness the cloud information. There is numerous security
escape clauses exist in the administration

 

a.      
OTP

Passwords are utilized by all business applications for
verification. However static passwords have heaps of confinements e.g.
passwords can get hacked; thoughtless representative may record passwords some
place; framework with spared passwords may be utilized by different clients or,
on the other hand a vindictive client may reset all passwords just to make
devastation. Consequently it is fitting to move to a more unique watchword
conspire like one time passwords or OTP. OTP are way more secure than static
passwords as there are no odds to overlook or reuse passwords. Each time
another secret key is created for each login session. Validation by one time
passwords is more dependable and easy to understand also. OTP era can be
finished by different OTP era calculations for creating series of passwords.

 

Step
1: User sends a demand request to the cloud server (Application server).

Step
2: The Request is forwarded to Authentication (Auth) Server.

Step
3: The Auth server generates a new OTP and send to user’s Registered Mobile
Number through SMS Gateway.

Step
4: The User send received OTP to Auth Server through web Gateway.

Step
5: Auth Server provides Authorization details of the user to Application Server
if and only if sent OTP and received OTP are same. The data base server
allocates user demanded recourse to the user.

Step
6: A Secured channel is established between the server and user.

 

b.      
Time-based
one-time password algorithm

TOTP calculation is a calculation that figures a
one- time watchword from a common mystery key and the current time. It has been
received as Internet Engineering Task Power standard RFC
6238. The TOTP joins a mystery key with the current timestamp utilizing
a crypto- realistic hash capacity to create a one-time watchword. In an average
two-factor confirmation application, client verification continues as takes
after: a client will enter username and watchword into a site or other server,
create a one-time secret word for the server utilizing TOTP running locally on
a cell phone or other gadget, what’s more, sort that secret word into the
server also. The server will then confirm the entered one-time secret key. Both
the server and the information proprietor register the token, at that point the
server checks if the token provided by the information proprietor coordinates
the privately created token. At that point the session between them is opened
and safely the clients can get to the framework.

4. Network Level OTP Validation (NL-OTP)

In
proposed OTP architecture the OTP is validated in Network server when the user
using same device for application request and OTP received. In wireless
communication world the users are identified by IP (Internet Protocol) &
IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) for internet
accesses. MSISDN (Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number) & IMEI are used to
identify the user in SMS and call accesses. The IMEI is 15 digits decimal
number which is unique for all the mobile phones. GSM networks assign an
individual MSISDN which is paired with the SIM. The SIM is paired with IMEI
number which is stored in the Equipment Identity Register (EIR). The OTP sent
to user through SMS gate of the subscribed network and the OTP submitted is to
server through internet gateway of the subscribed network. When the user uses
same device for web accesses and for SMS the IMEI is same which is found in the
network server. The OTP is validated using web accesses IMEI and SMS accesses
IMEI, if both are same then the OTP is validated without sending to the user
device. This validation dose not gives any big impact in the security but it
reduces the response time.

 

 

IV. CONCLUSION

 

Though cloud computing provides many
benefits for the data users such as on-demand service, convenient data access
etc. Data security is a main disadvantage in cloud storage and transmission. This paper discusses various data security issues in cloud computing
and the solution given by researchers to overcome those issues are discussed in
literature review. A novel NL-OTP validation technique is proposed. The
Validation of OTP is carried out in the Network server. The response time of
request is reduced in NL-OTP when the sending request and receiving OTP are
sane Equipment. The Network level bandwidth is also reduced by validating
inside server level.