Amongst the ministry who are accountable in evolving
entrepreneurial movement within Malaysian youth are the Ministry of Education
(MOE), Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) and the Ministry of Entrepreneurship
and Corporative Development (MECD). Majority of entrepreneurship acculturation
programmes is proposed by MECD (Norasmah, Othman, & Faridah, 2010). The objectives of
the establishment of MECD are to prepare a favorable environment for the growth
of Bumiputera entrepreneurs as well as to instill the culture of
entrepreneurship in Malaysian citizens (Hamidon S. , 2009).
Below are the lists of four programmes carried out under
acculturation of entrepreneurship: (Norasmah, Othman, & Faridah, 2010)
This program is implemented at the level of secondary school all
over Malaysia. Their aim is to invent awareness on several of entrepreneurship
activities within the students.
Entrepreneur Development Programme (PPUS)
This program has been prolonged to students of the public
institution of higher learning. The purpose is to expose undergraduates with
visions about entrepreneurship activity.
The goal of this training is to reveal on the acculturation of
entrepreneurship from the first stage to undergraduates as well as to provide
stability for students who joined Young Entrepreneur Programme at the third
stage on the entrepreneurship development programme. Besides, this program also
aimed to create more potential entrepreneur within undergraduates with having
knowledge and ability in entrepreneurship.
Course for Undergraduates
This course is targeted at final year students. The intention is to
inspire and train the graduating student in becoming entrepreneurs, improve
entrepreneurship programmes executed at all public universities, and as well as
to reduce the rates of unemployment amongst students.
The Ministry of Education (MOE) also has planned various forms of
entrepreneurship initiatives such as by introducing IPT entrepreneurship
development policies which are launched in April 2010 as one of the agenda of
the National Higher Education Strategic Plan (NHESP). It is a step towards
promoting human capital development that has six strategic thrusts including
setting up entrepreneurship centers in each IPT to plan, coordinate, monitor
and evaluate entrepreneurship education programs and activities in producing
graduates of entrepreneurs (Utusan Malaysia, 2010).
Keogh and Galloway (2004) state that there are four main ways on
how entrepreneurship teaching can assist the student in becoming entrepreneurs:
importance of new business invention can be developed and increased through
chances to simulate a business start-up inside a safe environment to the
and when graduates choose to continue entrepreneurship in the future, they will
confidence and be prepared for ‘real life’ business creation.
education plays important role in understanding the operations or the
management of a business where the business plan, applied marketing,
understanding key management ability such as negotiation and components of
purchasing are trained.
Every year, the government allocates
a total of a large fund to provide various programs under management agency
involved so that the development of entrepreneurship can be continued.
Hopefully, the effort that has been developed can contribute benefits to the
economy (Hamidon & Mohd Ali,
Various entrepreneurship programs have emerged at the institute of higher
education since 2003 when all public universities are required to provide
students for business ventures to enhance their competitiveness in the job
market (Zainudin, 2015). Table 2.1 shows
several lists of entrepreneurship programs that had been prepared to graduates
after they finished their studies:
Table 2.1: Entrepreneurship program and its agency
Tabung Usahawan Siswazah
Program Pembangunan Usahawan Siswazah
Dana Skim Prosper Siswazah
Program Latihan Keusahawanan
Source: (Hamidon & Mohd Ali,
Based on Budget 2015, the government
had provided several initiatives that have been executed by Ministry of
Education, in order to provide and implement the culture of entrepreneurship
for all students at every education level. One of the initiatives is by
introducing National Entrepreneurship Agenda to promote ‘entrepreneurial
mindset’ for local youths. For now, about 1,222 students have been following
programs such as Success Weekends, Community Incubation Program, Summer Venture
Program, and Co-Curriculum Student Activities’ (Wan Yusof & Zainol, 2015).
2.5 Factors that Encourage Students’ Involvement in
Generally, the factors that encourage a person to engage in
entrepreneurship can be categorized as pulling factor and pushing factor.
Pulling factor also can be interpreted as a positive factor such as
psychological factors like the tendency towards outstanding achievement, to
grab opportunities that exist in the environment and profitable, look business
as a source of income (revenue) and to serving the needs and wants of the people.
For pushing factor can be understood as a negative factor such as
disappointment at the workplace because not recognized by employers and limited
opportunities, economic recession and dissatisfied with community service and
environment (Laman Usahawan Muda, 2012).
For this study, several factors have been chosen to identify the
factors that encourage students’ involvement in entrepreneurship. These factors
are academic background, family background, entrepreneurial skills, personal
skills and support system.
2.5.1 Academic background
The government aims to produce holistic graduates by prioritizing
the stability between academic and entrepreneurship. One of the efforts done by
Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) is by embedding entrepreneurship elements
through curriculum and academic (My Metro, 2017). Therefore, the Pelan
Strategik Pengajian Tinggi Negara (PSPTN) has outlined entrepreneurship
field as a catalyst of transformation which the aims are to contribute to the
increase in the quality of institute of higher education (Mutalib, 2013).
The approach of knowledge and education is an effective mechanism
to implement the culture of entrepreneurship because educations encompass
skills, knowledge and attitude which can help individuals to plan their future
as well as skills to solve a problem (Jumbri & Zainudin, 2011). Based on the study
conducted by Fayolle and Linan (2014), it was found that there is a significant
difference between students who follow entrepreneurship subject and student who
are not. The result shows that the students who took entrepreneurship subject
are more ready to face the challenges on the difficulty of job market compared
to the students who are not taken the subject (Alain & Linan, 2014).
According to Nadzri, Saleh and Mohd Buhary (2015), a course taken
in a university play an important role in affecting graduates involvement in
entrepreneurship. The finding shows that there is a positive relationship
between entrepreneurship education and students intention to venture
The tendency of students in entrepreneurship field and
implementation of entrepreneurship skills in teaching and learning process can
influence the students’ tendency in venturing into entrepreneurship. The
studies have found that most of the programs carried out at educational
institutions level can culture the entrepreneurship amongst students (Adam, Abdul Razak, & Abu
2.5.2 Family background
Family bonds are the nearest and strongest bonds most of the people
have despite of whether family ties are supportive or antagonistic, easy-going
or restrictive. A family is the bonds who are possible to influence choice and
behavior (Pruett, Shinnar, Toney,
Llopis, & Fox, 2009).
Family with a business background usually manipulate and inspire
their siblings to take part in the entrepreneurial activity and they are likely
to control higher tendency to start a business in the future (Auken, Stephens, Fry, & Silva, 2006). According to
research conducted by Ali Amaran (2015), some of the entrepreneurs inherit
current business as to continuing family business. Besides, in order to inspire
fresh graduates to become an entrepreneur, family business plays an important
role in giving a supportive environment which gives them knowledge and
resources to open a business after they graduate.
According to Yahaya & Abdul Rahim (2015), their study shows
that there is no significant relationship between family background factors
with the interest of students in entrepreneurship. The result is parallel with
the previous study that found the family background factor cannot help in
raising student’s interest in entrepreneurship field (Shah Sidek & Abu Bakar, 2008). However, another
study signifies that family background factors can influence student’s interest
in entrepreneurship field (Nasharudin & Harun, 2010).
Based on the prospect of Malaysia government’s vision to alter its
economy from knowledge-based to invention in its target to be the high-income
country by 2020, undergraduates in the institute of higher education must be
revealed and applied the values and entrepreneurial skills (Mohamad, Lim, Yusof, Kassim,
& Abdullah, 2014).
An entrepreneur must own and dominate the specific skills to
transform the business idea into the viable business opportunity. An
entrepreneur should have skills to ensure the entrepreneurial activity can be
controlled (Othman & Norasmah, 2002). Through Entrepreneurship
Camp among MRSM students, they are given an explanation about the marketing
strategy that is the place, price, product and promotion (4P’s) before carrying
out practical on product marketing (Zainuri & Yahaya, 2015).
Based on Osman (2007), the previous study indicates that by having
the skills that related to entrepreneurship field is one of the factors which
influence someone to become an entrepreneur. Therefore, skills that associated
with entrepreneurship are seen as important items to be identified deeper.
Husaini & Ahmad (2008), their research explain that the
entrepreneurial skills have four stages that are the ability to identified job
opportunity, the ability to design business planning, the ability to build, exploring
and grab the business opportunity and lastly the ability to self-employed.
2.5.4 Personal Attitude
Positive attitude plays an important role in influencing someone to
become an entrepreneur and most of these positive attitudes come from the
individual itself (Osman, 2007). Besides, he states
that youth must have attitude and desire to achieve own idea, does not want to
be the workers, getting money and independent.
Personal attitude is a measure of commitment towards a new business
and the determination to expense towards entrepreneurship ideas (Diaz-Garcia &
Jimenez-Moreno, 2010). From entrepreneurship perspective,
personal attitude is the point to which individuals possess either a positive or
negative estimation towards entrepreneurial behaviour (Miralles, Riverola, &
According to Ibrahim Adham1,
in terms of business, the field of study is not so important, but the most
important and crucial things is the attitude of students. He says that in
business, 98% involved is attitude and the rest 2% is skills. Only with actual
attitude, the individual is able to venture into business consistently. He also
states that attitude is the main point which enables students under his
training can remain in business or not (Mohyiddin, Idris, & Syed
Based on study conducted by Mustapha and Selvaraju (2015), personal
attitude influence the students’ intention to be entrepreneurs. Attitude can
influence and play important role in entrepreneurship action done by
entrepreneurs. Therefore, these attitudes can be detected in the life of an
entrepreneur. These attitudes are as follows (Hassan, 1991):
dream and ambition
and grab opportunities
spirits and energetic
and having initiative
Support systems also become the factor for entrepreneurs’
involvement in entrepreneurship. The support system that is going to be
explained here is three types of support which is support from university,
lectures and friends. The form of support that usually given by them is either
by moral support or material support.
Universities play a crucial role in evolving the students’
entrepreneurial careers and inclination. Students are more likely to venture
into own business based on learning environment in universities (Nurmi & Paasio, 2007). Universities are
viewed as a medium in guiding formation of entrepreneurship intention among the
students. (Hamidon & Mohd Ali,
Universities in Malaysia have played a vital role in culturing the
entrepreneurship among students (Deraman, Mohamad, Ahmad,
Bakar, Mohd Khairuddin, & Mohamad Yusuf, 2007). Several of programs
and activities of entrepreneurship education have been established such as
introduction to basic course of entrepreneurship, preparation for
entrepreneurship programs and as well as curriculum activities in order to
support students’ interest in entrepreneurship (Othman, Othman, Tin, & Ismail, 2012).
1 Ibrahim Adham bin Asmail @ Ismail is
alumni from Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM). He is the owner of FLICKERS
COFFEE HOUSE in Taman Tun DR. Ismail, Kuala Lumpur.