Articular injury and disease, and repair.[5] In particular,

Articular cartilage is
the tissue connecting diarthrodial joints. The main responsibility of articular
cartilage is to offer a smooth and lubricated surface to ease the
transportation of loads with a low frictional coefficient. Injury to this
tissue is the reason for compelling joint pains especially in middle-aged to
older people. Unfortunately cartilage has very small potential to self-repair
due to the complexity of its structure and this may result in long term
injuries that can be maintained for many years and cause even further
degeneration.1,2 Tissue engineering needs variety of studies to
understand all aspects and effective elements. There are different cell
sources, different methods of culturing, and various kinds of materials to be
used as scaffolds and chemical agents which can affect cell growth,
proliferation and differentiation. Many studies have put effort on
understanding how all these elements can guide us to the best environmental
condition for tissue engineering for cartilage.

One promising approach is
the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are adult stem cells that can be
detached from human or animal sources. Human MSCs are the non-haematopoietic,
multipotent stem cells with the potential to comprehend into osteocytes,
adipocytes and chondrocytes as well ectodermal (neurocytes) and endodermal
lineages (hepatocytes).3 These cells are have the
ability to expand in the culture and even may grow in adequate numbers to inhabit
engineered scaffolds, serving as an alternative source for fully differentiated
chondrocytes.4

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Musculoskeletal tissues
are highly sensitive to their mechanical environment, allowing them to adapt to
the physical demands of their environment. Mechanical factors can influence the
structure and function of these tissues at all stages of life, including development,
growth, remodeling, injury and disease, and repair.5 In
particular, chondrocytes and chondroprogenitors have been shown to transduce
and respond to a wide array of mechanical stimuli both during development as
well as throughout adulthood, including deformation, shear, fluid flow,
streaming potentials, hydrostatic pressure, and osmotic pressure.