By underreaction), duration of emotions (e.g., emotions are

By preschool and early school age,
children likely have developed the skills to engage in sophisticated emotion
regulation strategies, although they may not employ them during negatively arousing
situations as frequently as less sophisticated strategies. Additionally, certain
types of emotion regulation strategies may be more efficient in managing
negative emotions (Gilliom,
Shaw, Beck, Schonberg, & Lukon, 2002). For example,
avoidance (e.g., moving away from task), suppression (e.g., inhibiting emotion
expression), or venting (vocalization or physical, e.g., crying or hitting an
object) are generally less efficient ways of dealing with emotional situations,
whereas cognitive reappraisal (e.g., reinterpreting the meaning of a situation),
social support seeking (e.g., asking for assistance from a parent), and
goal-direct behaviors (e.g., strategic efforts) tend to be more effective at
managing emotions (citations here).

patterns of emotions may involve difficulties with displaying emotional
intensity (e.g., overreaction or underreaction), duration of emotions (e.g.,
emotions are too short or too long for a given situation), emotion frequency
(e.g., too frequently or too infrequently), or type (e.g., inappropriate for
the context) (Gross & Jazaieri, 2014). Efforts to control the intensity or
duration of emotions to achieve a desired goal are related to the effective
emotion regulation strategy use.

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Emotion Regulation in Children with ASD

Children with ASD may encounter
challenges in regulating the intensity, duration, frequency, or types of
emotions and may instead display disruptive behaviors such as tantrums or
aggression (Sofronoff, Attwood, Hinton, &
Levin, 2007)

Emotion regulation difficulties may also
involve factors such as awareness of emotions and context, the understanding of
goals, and choosing emotion regulation strategies that will further a goal
(Gross & Jazaieri 2014), and modifying responses in socially appropriate
manner. Children with ASD may be more likely to encounter problems with such
factors relative to their TD counterparts. For example, Rieffe, Meerum Terwogt and
Kotronopoulou (2007) found children had difficulties with emotional awareness
such as identifying and differentiating between their own emotions.