Chapter 1: IntroductionSaudi Arabia is a very large country forming the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. It has several geographic regions, each with a diversity of plants and animals adapted to their own particular habitats. The wildlife of Saudi Arabia is substantial, varied and unique. As well as high mountains and deserts, there is a coastal plain and long coastline on the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the west and a rather shorter coastline on the Persian Gulf to the east. There is a different kind of animal species in Saudi Arabia. In the pools of oases, there are small fish. There are also few amphibious animals such as frogs and toads. Lizards, most popular lizard is the dab which is three and a half feet, fat-tailed lizard. Also, there are turtles and snakes. Birds of Saudi Arabia include local birds and migratory birds from northern Europe, India, and Africa. Local birds such as the lammergeier live in Asir and there also several owls, falcons, eagles, and vultures. Migrant birds like bee-eaters, warbles, flycatchers and some exotic species like flamingos. There is a variety of mammals but their number was decreased from the hunting. There is animal that is almost becoming extinct like gazelles, the white oryx, the Nubian goat and Arabian leopard. In the desert, there is rates, foxes, and civets. There are hares as golden sand rabbits. Small rodents include jerboas, porcupines, mice, and rats while hedgehogs are found among rocks. Troops of baboons roam live in Asir. (Holm, Owen, Ochsenwald,2017) Marine animals such as dugongs, whales, and several dolphins live in Arabian Gulf and the red sea.AimsRaise awareness of Saudi Arabian animals.Objectives1. Raise awareness of Saudi Arabian animals 2. Educating people in Saudi Arabia about the animals.3. Informing people about wild animals importance to our culture.Target AudiencePeople who live in Saudi Arabia.Chapter 2: Literature Review1. Animals diversity.Recently, researchers have recorded 76 species of mammals in Saudi Arabia. One of the extinct species is the Arabian lion and Arabian ostrich. They also have found 444 kind of birds in Saudi Arabia, including ten endemic species, 185 species are proliferating. The Kingdom is a station of many migratory birds from Asia and Europe to Africa and the contrary. The Arabian gulf attracts millions of birds which are about 125 species to spend winter period. And there are three ranks of reptiles in the Kingdom of 167 species. Including ten species of turtles, 100 Lizards, two species of suborder amphisbaenas and 55 species of snakes, ten of them are sea snakes. Because of the lack of water in the Kingdom, amphibians have the lowest number of species. Which 7 species of frogs and toads. In marine environments, researches has recorded 1280 species of fish in the Red Sea, 542 species in the Arabian Gulf. (Biological Diversity, 2015)2. Conservation animals of Saudi Arabia.Conservation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is relatively young, yet have made considerable gains in conservation through strategic proclamation and reintroductions. Changes in land use, illegal hunting, and competition with domestic stock has decimated the native ungulates like camels and deers, meaning that the survival of the native ungulate species is now completely dependent on protected area network. The challenge is to sustain this network to make meaningful conservation impact into the future.As elsewhere in the world, the loss of biodiversity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is due above all to economic factors. This is especially true where low values are given to biodiversity and ecological functions such as rangeland and watershed protection, nutrient cycling, pollution control, soil formation and photosynthesis. The threats to ecosystem structure and function are basically the same as those which threaten species. In Saudi Arabia emphasis is given to in-situ conservation which aims to maintain and recover viable populations of wild species in nature within their known natural range. This is being achieved through a system of protected areas and captive breeding programmes.Saudi National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development (NCWCD)The kingdom of Saudi Arabia established Saudi National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development (NCWCD) in 1986, to protect and develop the biography in the country. The NCECD main goal is that resources are to be concerned and protected, not as an end in itself, they will be available for use now and in the future. But unfortunately the wildlife resources are low so the use of them must be restricted. NCWCD is engaged in a wide range of research and conservation activities related to birds. Recently the NCWCD’s research work is focused on breeding programs mostly, to save endangered species. The captive breeding programs have outgrown its initial difficulties, a bird has grown their number and has been available for release. And the greatest challenge NCWCD has been through was when the oil spill caused by the Gulf war, the NCWCD created an animal rescue centre and launching habitat restoration programs. Protected areas and captive breeding programmes The kingdom of Saudi Arabia seeks to save the biodiversity life by all natural ways, to recover a variety of habitats for the wildlife. Protected areas created by NCWCD have mostly been controlled hunting reserves in which all hunting has been banned. So they established 15 protected areas, 12 areas where for lands wildlife and the three other areas are for marine wildlife. Here are a list of the names and their location on Saudi Arabia map. Protected areas map.(protected areas map, 2016).Wildlife LegislationHunting animals system:People are not allowed to hunt animals in protected areas and inside cities and villages. Also, the government has protected certain species from hunting and gave specific times for hunting. The hunters must have a hunting license to be allowed to hunt. Those who break the rules and violate the system will receive severe penalties.3. Animals abuse and threats.animal crueltyIn Saudi Arabia, animal abuse is rejected by the religion of Islam first and from the country laws. Unfortunately recently in social media, there has been an animal abuse videos shared and recorded proudly by the abusers themselves! For example, on Snapchat a young man from Jeddah have recorded videos of himself hunting and shooting street cats just because as he said they are making his car dirty. But thanks for some of his snapchat followers he got arrested. Animal abuse is a big issue that can’t be ignored because it can be a part of a larger pattern of violence that can include people too. It is rare to witness an animal abuse, but it doesn’t mean it’s not happening, it can be inside a house, farm and other places. Threats of Terrestrial Fauna1 – Desertification2 – Overhunting3 – Loss of Habitat4 – Pollution 5 – Indiscriminate Use of Pesticides6 – Landfilling7 – Dredging8- Animal Trade.9 – Future Human Activities4. Education and awareness According to Saudi wildlife authority, the kingdom of Saudi Arabia has several wildlife awareness campaigns around the world. In the annual event of the world’s migratory birds day, which is held on the second weekend of May to highlight the need to protect migratory birds and their habitats. (The Kingdom…, 2016). The other hand, education is limited to be in schools only.Chapter 4: The Personantroduction.This chapter is information and results collected from asking and interviewing people in Saudi Arabia about the research subject using online survey and voice call.Methods: Survxey & InterviewTo complete the research about animals of Saudi Arabia, I made a survey for the people who live in Saudi Arabia, to study how they are aware of the animals of Saudi Arabia, to study their knowledge and know what do they have about animals.The survey was a digital survey, we shared it via Twitter and WhatsApp on 28/11/2017, it was open for about 3 weeks and it has received 320 responses. Here are the questions:1- In which city do you live in SA?2- Gender.3- Do you have an animals?4- Do you know the hunting rules in SA?5- Have you ever been to an animal protective area in SA(Zoo’s are not a protective area)?6- If you choose yes write the name and its location.7- Usually where do you get your information about animals of SA?8- What will you do if you saw an injured cat or bird in the street.I will take it to veterinary clinic mediately.I will feel sorry for it but i can’t do anything.I don’t care.9- do you like to see wild animals in nature?10- How important animals of SA to you?11-which animal of these are living in SA.12- In the previous question all the animals where living in SA accept the dollar bear, what do you think of SA animals? or do you have a story or something to share?13- Please, If you are an expert in animals of SA, introduce your self and write your email. or phone number, thank you. After that seeing the results of the survey I made a list of questions for the interview. For the interview I have found Mr. Makld Aljaeid on Twitter who is a researcher and observer in Saudi wildlife authority and an expert on the Arabian leopard in Saudi Arabia. He accepted to do the interview on 20/12/2017 morning. The interview is done by a voice call for about half an hour. During the call, we have discussed his work in the national center in Tief.Results & Analysis:The SurveyThe survey got 320 answers collected from around Saudi Arabia. However, theanswers where 60% of people at age 18-25 years old, 55,9% are females and the majority answered from Sharqya.In the question (do you have an animal?), 162 people have answered yes, 94 of them are females and the other 68 were males. And after looking to what kind of animals they have, the highest answer are birds, the second are cats, third is fish and then the other housepets such as dogs, rabbits, hamsters, and turtles. When looking to the gender, both females and males take care of birds, cats, and other house pet but the males have more kind of animals that females don’t have such as an owl, sheep, camels, wild birds, dab and rock hyrax. These differences show us how males have more access and ability to the difficult and bigger animals.On the other question do you know the hunting rules, 60% said no, 27,2 maybe and the other 12,8% are yes, and this show how dangerous animals are in the wild how they could be safe if few who knows their rights.When did they answer the question if they have ever visited a protected area on Saudi Arabia? only 24 said yes 4 people were females and the other 20 are males. And after that I asked them about the protected area and there are some who mistaken the protected areas with the zoo, and the protected areas were Jubail, Ibex reserve, Uruq bani Maarid, Farasan Island, Altubayq, which are only 5 from 15 protected areas in Saudi Arabia.On the question where do you get information about Saudi Arabia animals, 75,6% from the internet, 26,9 from family and 25,9 from school. Other answers were negative like there is no information about them. But few said they learn from their work and other experts.To know how much they have of responsibility of the individual towards the weak creatures, I asked them what will you do if you saw an injured cat or bird in the street? 79.1% I feel sorry for it but I can’t do anything, 16.6% I will take it to veterinary clinic mediately and 4.4% I don’t care. 16.6% are 53 people only who care about the life of the animal and 36 from the 53 are females. The answer might be a bias because of the way the survey has been answered.On the question do you like seeing animals on nature? 87.2% yes and the other 12.8% are no. the 12.8% who said no, on the next question how important animals of Saudi Arabia to you? answered like, we don’t care, I am scared of animals, nothing and they aren’t important but some of them wrote we get from animals food and leather. The other answers say because they are beautiful and bring happiness to the life, and the must said they are important to the environment and the circle of life. To know how much animals of Saudi Arabia they know, they had to guess which animal from the pictures does live in Saudi Arabia, the animals were all from Saudi arabia except the polar bear. Here are the results of what they have chosen.98.8% dhab69.7% Arabian bustard62.5% Sand cat, which I think they have mistaken it for a street cat. 55.3% Nubian ibex49.1% Baboon monkey29.7% Arabian Leopard (nmr)20.3% Flamingo11.3% Dugong (sea cow)10.33% The honey badger0% The polar bear.On the end I wrote the previous animals question fact and what do they think of the SA animals, must of the comments were surprised and said that they are beautiful, but many commented about how endangered they are or they must have been extended, and wished for them a good and safe life.The InterviewDuring this interview, Mr. Makld talked about the status of the Arabian leopard and how they work to protect it from extinction, which is one example of Saudi National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development work. First, he talks about why is the Arabian leopard is in danger, which is overhunting. Overhunting his preys such as deer and rocky lint caused a decreasing on the leopard numbers. This shows us how all animals are important and killing some species will affect other creatures not only humans. The second reason of Arabian leopards decreasing as Mr. Makld has said is offside, which is the humans who have animals of leopard preys, on a way to protect their animals they kill and poison the predators by poisoning the dead animal so that the leopard or other predators might come and eat it. When I asked him if there are any punishments for the violators who poison those animals, he said yes there is but they don’t give them the punishments. Because its hard to impose something for the people of the region, this is a big problem and weakness of the authority they don’t force the violators to stop and they keep killing with nothing to worry about. The second problem is the nescience of the people, so they are working on spreading wildlife awareness to those people who live in the herbal areas in villages. Some accept to be aware but some don’t, they don’t believe in changing their old habits. in my opinion, they should make a strategy to teach people from young age to respect nature and wildlife.After that Mr. Makld talked about the plurality of the protected areas in Saudi Arabia and their efforts in resettlement native animals such as sand gazelles, houbara, and Arabian Oryx. Also, he talked about how you can work with them by volunteering or employ there. Mr. Makld said, “Everyone is aspiring to enter the protected area” when I asked him about how your friends and family feel about your work.”Every forbidden is desirable…in general the nescience is still there”, Mr. Makld said answering why some people still violate the rules and attack the security of protected areas. He said they post what they have killed on social media like Instagram to show their hunting of rabbits or deer just to show power and to people not for their needs of food or other things. In the same way, those who are shallow minded, smuggle foreign animals from outside to Saudi arabia with dissent ways that expose the life of the creatures just for money. Punishments are confiscating these animals because the goal of the Saudi Commission for the Protection of Wildlife is to restore the animals in Saudi Arabia, prevent any alternatives from other countries. The Saudi National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development is improving, they work on providing satellite to collect more information about the animals. They exchange animals from other countries such as Sharqah to Saudi Arabia to produce and save some animals species.In summary, people in Saudi Arabia lack of knowledge and awareness of wildlife but on another hand, they like to take care of house pets such as birds, rabbits, hamsters, and cats and other farm animals like camels, sheeps and livestock. Informationally the responsibility of the creatures life is low in the majority of the people, they don’t fight attackers on their environment, they don’t value their native animals. The Saudi National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development is working and saving native animals and share awareness to the people around them, but Saudi Arabia is a big country they face problem on reaching every person in Saudi Arabia and make them accept the change in their habit.