CHAPTER group are given a pre-test before the

CHAPTER
III

RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes the discussion of
the research method employed in this research. It includes research design,
research subject, treatment, data collection, data analysis and hypothesis.

3.1.Research
Design

Research  design 
plays  an  important 
role  in  a 
research  because  the quality of research greatly depends
on  the design.  Research design is the road map for the
researcher in order to determine the right direction of research process build
upon the purpose (Saworno, 2006). This research used the form of quantitative
research to analyze the data. Quantitative research is the process of finding
knowledge using numerical data to analyze the information regarding what needs
to know using statistics. It is an objective research for one truth that relies
on hypotheses and variables, and is large-scale (O’Leary, 2004).

This
research used an experimental research design to find out whether or not Jigsaw
II technique can significantly improve the first semester students’ reading
skill of English Language Education Department at University of Muhammadiyah
Malang. In this research, Jigsaw II technique was used as independent variable
and the students’ speaking skill was used as dependent variable.

In
this research, quasi-experimental research design which is Nonequivalent Control Group Design is
used because the subject could not be taken randomly from the population since
the subject naturally is formed in one group or a class (Sugiyono, 2015). However,
the regulation of the educational institution lead this research to impossibly
assign randomly research subject. This research involved two groups or classes which
are experimental group and control group which were given different treatment.
The experimental class was taught by using Jigsaw II technique while control class
was not taught by using Jigsaw II technique. Both group are given a pre-test
before the treatment and a post-test after the treatment. The tests were used
to evaluate the students’ reading skill improvement.

Table 3.1 The research design of Nonequivalent
Control Group Design

Group

Pretest

Independent
Variable (The Treatment)

Post-test

E

O1

X1

O2

C

O3

X2

O4

 

Notes:

E          : The experimental group (class which
was taught with treatment)

C         : The control group (class which was
taught without treatment)

O1        : Pretest of experimental and control
group

O2        : Post-test of experimental and control
group

O3        : Treatment by using Jigsaw II technique

O4        : There was no treatment

                           

3.2.Research
Subject

The subject of the research
is the subject that is investigated by the researcher. The subject becomes the
center of attention or target for researchers (Arikunto, 2006). Therefore, the
subject of this research is the parties that were used as the sample taken from
a population.

Population is the total
participation of an assigned class of people, objects, or events. Sugiyono
(2015) defines population as generalization part which consist of
object/subject that has quality and specific characteristic defined by the
researcher to be studied and concluded. Furthermore, the population of this
research was all of the first semester students of English Language Education
Department year 2017 at University of Muhammadiyah Malang.

Sample
is one of the elements of the population which becomes the research object. It
is part of the number and characteristic of the population (Sugiyono, 2015). In
this research, purposive sampling technique was used so that two classes of first
semester students with the same lecturer and characteristic were taken as the
sample. The number of the entire samples are 69 students. Class E consisting of
33 students was taken as the experimental group that would be taught using
Jigsaw II technique whereas class D consisting of 36 students
was taken as the control group that would be taught without using Jigsaw II
technique.

3.2.1.     
Treatment

In
arranging this research, the treatment is given to the experimental group. The
control group is given the usual method normally used by the teacher.

3.2.1.1.Treatment of the Experimental Group

The experimental group treatment
was given in the meeting through the steps as follows:

1.      The
teacher explained what students going to learn and introduced the topic.

2.      Teacher
gave instruction to the students regarding the process of Jigsaw II technique.

3.      Teacher
monitored the students’ work in group and guided them during the learning
process using Jigsaw II technique.

4.      After
the Jigsaw II technique process was done, some groups were asked to report
their work.

3.2.1.2.Treatment of Control Group

The control group treatment
was given in the meeting through the steps as follows:

1.      Teacher
introduced the material and explained what students going to learn.

2.      Students
learned the material from teacher’s explanation and did what the teacher asked
them to do.

3.      Teacher
gave student exercise to do and asked them to discuss in the class.

3.3.Data
Collection

Data
collection is the using of method and instrument which has been determined and
tested the validity and reliability.

3.3.1.     
Research
Instrument

Instrument is a tool
that is used by the researcher to measure the observed phenomenon. All of the
phenomenon are specifically called as research variable (Sugiyono, 2015). The
instrument of this research is test. Moreover, the researcher collected the
data from the students’ reading skill measurement result from pre- and
post-test using proficiency test. Proficiency test have traditionally involved
standardized multiple choice items on grammar, vocabulary, reading
comprehension, and aural comprehension (Brown, 2004). To evaluate the students’
reading skills improvement, this research used proficiency test by giving
reading comprehension passage and a set of questions with multiple choice
including the comprehension features as follows (Brown, 2004):

·        
Main idea (topic),

·        
Expression/idioms/phrases in context,

·        
Inference (implied detail),

·        
Grammatical features,

·        
Detail (scanning for specifically stated
detail),

·        
Excluding facts not written (unstated
details),

·        
Supporting idea(s),

·        
Vocabulary in context.

3.3.2.     
Procedure
of Data Collection

In
collecting data, the students was given reading skill test. the test were given
for getting the objective data of student’s achievement in reading skill by
using Jigsaw II technique in experimental class and without Jigsaw II technique
in control class.  Two tests were applied
which were pre-test (before treatment) and post-test (after treatment).

1.     
Pre-test

Pre-test
was conducted in experimental group and control group before the treatment. It
is purposed to know the students initial ability in reading skill. The pre-test
consisted of 20 questions of multiple choice tests. The students asked to
choose the correct answer by crossing A, B, C, or D. All score of the pre-test questions
is 100 point. There are two ways of scoring for multiple choice test which are
answer guess without correction and answer guess with correction (Djemari
Mardapi, 2008 as cited in Sumaryanta, 2015). Scoring without correction is used
in this test. Every correct question item has one point (depends on the
question item weight) so that the score which will be obtained by calculating
the number of question item that correctly answered.

Table
3.2 The formation of score calculation.

No.

Detail

Score

1.

Correct Answer

1

2.

Wrong Answer

0

 

B

x 100

N

Students
Score =

 

B: Number of Achievement
Score

N: Number of Maximum
Score

2.     
Treatment

The
treatment was distributed after giving the pre-test. It was given differently
for the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group was
taught using Jigsaw II technique while the control group was taught without
using Jigsaw II technique.

3.     
Post-test

Post-test
was given in the end of the meeting. The purpose is to know the students
improvement in reading skill after the implementation of the technique. The
post-test consisted of test which is similar with the pre-test. So that after
giving the pre-test, researcher could know the improvement of student’s reading
skill.

3.4. Data Analysis

Data
analysis is an activity that is done to change the data result of the research
to become information which can be used to take the conclusion. After getting
the data which are the result of the test, the scores between experiment and
control class would be compared. To analyze the difference of students’ score
from pre-test and post-test from both experimental group and control group, the
data were computed using Dependent Sample T-Test by using SPSS 21 version.

3.5.Hypothesis

This
research is aimed to answer the research problem so that the research proposes
the hypothesis as follows:

H0          :
There is no significant improvement of students’ reading skill who taught by
using Jigsaw II technique.

H1          :
There is significant improvement of students’ reading skill who taught by using
Jigsaw II technique.

If Sig.
(2-tailed) was
higher than 0.05 (5% of level significance
level), H0 (null hypothesis) would
be accepted. However, If Sig. (2-tailed) was lower than 0.05
(5%
of level significance
level), H0 (null hypothesis) would
be rejected.