JOURNAL particles and its applications in various fields











Nano-Technology is derived from the word “nanotech”. It’s
generally the manipulation of the matter in small atomic size which are
extremely small particles.

Nano-Technology is the study of very small particles and
its applications in various fields of science, medical, engineering etc.



Nano scale materials have been used since centuries, the
gold and silver particles had created colors in the stained glass windows of
the medieval churches since hundreds of years ago. The artists then did not
know that their work to create beautiful works of art had actually led to the
changes in the composition of materials.

But today the Scientists and Engineers are deliberately
finding ways to make materials at nano scale and take advantage of it by
enhanced properties such as: strength, light-weight, control of spectrum of
light, Chemical Reactivity etc.


of Nano-Technology:


The idea of Nano-Technology began with a discussion of
“There is plenty of room at the bottom” by Richard Feynman a physicist, at an
American Physical society meeting at California Institute of Technology on 29th
December, 1959. In that meeting Feynman has described a process to his fellow
scientists and about how matter/atoms/molecules can be manipulated into smaller
individual particles and be controlled.

From two decades of then, in the year of 1981 in deep
explorations on the nano atoms, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term
Nano-Technology in the year 1981, the discovery of scanning tunneling
microscope, which could see the individual atoms/particles.


is Nanotechnology?


Nano-Technology is the usage of functional systems at the
molecular scale. It refers to the construction of objects or materials from
bottom up, using techniques and tools which are being used today to increase the
efficiency and performance of the products.

Nano-Technology is very small, one nanometer is a
billionth of a meter i.e. 10^-9 a meter.

25,400,000 nanometers is an inch, a newspaper is 100,000
nanometers in an inch, for suppose if a marble was in a size of a nanometer,
then the real size of a one meter marble right now would be the size of the



This has the ability to see and control individual
particles and molecules.

Everything is this world is made up of small atoms: food
we eat, Clothes we wear, Buildings, Our own bodies etc.

But something small is hard to see with a naked eye. Only
with microscopes which were invented to see nano-scale were invented recently
about 30 years ago.

The birth of Nano-Technology took turn with the help of
first microscopes i.e. scanning tunneling Microscope (STM) and Atomic Force
Microscope (AFM) the nanotechnology was born.





This is the with the individual atoms, this
parallel shaft speed

Reducer gear is one of the largest Nano

Devices ever modeled in atomic.


is a Bucky ball?

Bucky balls are small soccer ball-shaped molecules which
are made of completely carbon and it measures a nanometer as a diameter

The few nanomaterial innovations that can be used in real
time life is:

Environment: It can be applied in the purification of
water methods and removal of Pollutants from ground water soil.

Innovations: Efficient Solar panels, Stronger and light
weight Wind turbines, Lighter car parts, Fuel Efficiency.

Detection and Treatment: Treatment for Cancer, Brain Surgery
and various medical problems.

Innovation: Smart Tires for vehicles, Anti-fog windows with
coatings, Stronger and light weight Car Parts.

Innovations: Enhanced sensors for biological and
chemical weapons and high performance defensive materials.

Daily times: Fabrics that can resist more staining and
sports equipment’s.

That are faster, smaller, portable that can store large amounts of data, energy
and Information.

Nano-Technology is the Future, It can be applied in:


Technology in the environment

Technology in the Quantum World

Technology in the Medicine

Technology in the Materials

Technology in the Electronics

Technology of Future

scale and Energy.

Nano technology Combines Chemistry, Biology, Physics and
Engineering all together is the solution of the Future.


of Nano-Technology


There are four generations of the Nano-Technology

1st generation of nanotechnology was Passive
Nanostructures. (Until 2000)

1) These nanostructures were dispersed and Contact
nanostructures such as Aerosols, Colloids

2) Products incorporating Nanostructures such as
Coatings, Nano-particles reinforced composites; Nano-structured Metals,
polymers, ceramics etc.


2nd Generation of nanotechnology was Active
Nanostructures. (From 2000 to 2005)

1) These Nano-structures were Bio-Active and Health
Effects such as Targeted Drugs, bio devices.

2) These Nano-structures were used in Physico-chemical
example: 3D transistors, amplifiers, actuators, adaptive structures etc.

3nd Generation of nanotechnology was Systems
of Nano systems. (From 2005 to 2010)

This nano-systems were used at Guided assembling, 3D
Networking, Robotics, Hierarchical architectures etc.


4th Generation of nanotechnology was Molecular
Nano systems. (From 2010 to 2020)

This Nano systems were used at Molecular devices ‘by
design’, Atomic design, emerging functions etc.


Use of Technology

Like mobiles or computers or before it nanotech will
provide us with great efficiency in the future years of life.

This technology has multi use, meaning it will have
various commercial uses in engineering world, medical field etc. and even in
Military use- making far more powerful weapons and surveillance tools, it has
not only the benefits but also the risks.

Nano technology is not something which just offers us better
products but it improves the manufacturing process. For example a printer can
make copies of some choose data as many copies as we want. But nanotechnology
is something which gives us what we want at cheap and more efficient way, that’s
why it’s sometimes called “the next Industrial revolution”

Nanotechnology is not something which allows mainly high
quality products at a low cost but it will help in making new Nano factories at
low costs and and at same rapid speed. It has the ability to reproduce its own
means of production that’s why nanotechnology is said to be the exponential
technology. It’s the power to build rapidly, cheaply and cleanly. In just weeks
the production of Nano factories can become into billions.  Nano technology is revolutionary, powerful,
transformative and potentially very dangerous or beneficial technology.