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As evidenced by the data collected, different concentrations of sucrose do indeed affect the rate of CO2 production in yeast. When there is more sugar in a solution, more bubbles of CO2 are produced. This happens because of a anaerobic process called alcoholic fermentation, which is carried out by saccharomyces in order to convert sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide 1. In this particular experiment, the yeast in the conical flask was forced to perform fermentation because its access to oxygen was being restricted by a rubber bung. During the first step of anaerobic respiration, the yeast breaks down sucrose (a disaccharide) into glucose (monosaccharides) through the use of an enzyme named invertase 2. After this happens, the saccharomyce moves on to the next phase of respiration: glycolysis 3. In this stage, the glucose (6C) that was previously formed is converted into two pyruvate (3C) molecules via a series of redox reactions 3. As a result of such chemical reactions, two ATP molecules are produced, while NAD+ is reduced to NADH 4. However, since glycolysis can only occur if NAD+ is available, the yeast has to recycle NADH back into the aforementioned electron carrier for more sugar to be split later on 58. This is achieved by decarboxylating pyruvate (3C) molecules into acetylaldehyde (2C) molecules: a process that ends up releasing CO2 as a byproduct 68. After such transpires, another enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase transports a hydrogen anion (H-) from NADH onto to the acetaldehyde molecule, producing ethanol and regenerating NAD+ as a result 74. There is a limit, however, to how much respiration can be done by the yeast due to the toxicity of ethyl alcohol 5. Such means that the saccharomyce would eventually reach a point where it could no longer produce carbon dioxide (plateau) 5. But since the yeast in this experiment only had to undergo respiration for 15 minutes (a relatively short period of time), this is not something that occurred.1- Mikell, Meredith. “Alcohol Fermentation: Definition, Equation & Process.” Study.com, Study.com, study.com/academy/lesson/alcohol-fermentation-definition-equation-process.html.2- Latremouille, Gabriel. “The Effect of Sucrose Concentration on the Percentage Change in Carbon Dioxide during Ethanol (Yeast) Fermentation.” ResearchGate, www.researchgate.net/publication316940265_The_Effect_of_Sucrose_Concentration_on_the_Percentage_Change_in_Carbon_Dioxide_during_Ethanol_Yeast_Fermentation.3- bozemanbiology. “Anaerobic Respiration.” YouTube, YouTube, 2 May 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDC29iBxb3w.4- khanacademy. “Alcohol or Ethanol Fermentation | Cellular Respiration | Biology | Khan Academy.” YouTube, YouTube, 26 Aug. 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=D6mRPgvAEOc.5- ElliotBurch13. “Alcoholic Fermentation Made Easy.” YouTube, YouTube, 13 Dec. 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=JsC9uEClUJc.6- “Fermentation Overview.” YouTube, YouTube, 18 Nov. 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=NeiGDt_U-eQ.7- “Ethanol and Lactic Acid Fermentation.” AK LECTURES, www.aklectures.com/lecture/ethanol-and-lactic-acid-fermentation.

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8- mathdude2012. “Ethanol and Lactic Acid Fermentation.” YouTube, YouTube, 15 May 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPbnjk2orcQ.