Rabeya nevertheless, declared war. Because of the tied

Rabeya AkhayPeriod 129 December 2017Research Paper Outline: Origins of World War IIntroduction:During the 1700s, the Ottoman Empire was brought down to crisis by a succession of weak rulers within a political and social order. The internal strife and the inability to prevent European rivals from invadings its territories at its borders, the Ottoman Empire appeared near disintegration. Over the 18th century, able Ottoman rulers and committed reformers strategically slowed the decline of the empire. Although there were continuation of many outside invasions, when Russia invaded, the war that broke out only left the empire under a disastrous defeat. Recognising their weakening military position and incapacity to wage war, the Ottoman leaders began seeking alliances with European nations such as Germany and ended up join the Central Power. On July 7, 1914, Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia after the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Archduke. Although Serbia conceded many demands after first rejecting the ultimatum, Austria-Hungary, nevertheless, declared war. Because of the tied alliance, the Ottoman Empire, Germany, and Italy were now in the war because their aid was seeked. Thesis: Although prior to the war the Ottoman empire had held a neutral stance, allying with the Central Powers lead them to being responsible when Austria declared war on Serbia. For the same reason of supporting its allies and defending its country, the empire’s allies and enemies fight in this war to attain peace. In the perspective of the Ottomans, Russia is at fault for starting this war.First Body Paragraph: What is the position of the nation prior to the war?Topic Sentence: By the end of the 1800s the empire was in decline, with a decrease in size and increase of subjection to internal problems and instability and recognized their weakening military position; throughout this, prior to the war, they held a neutral stance when it came to globals issues around them and conflicts between nations.Evidence:Card #1A:  The proclamation issued was more open to the coming power, more for the people. This also made it possible to be, “far more receptive to German friendship than to approaches from the allies.”Analytics: This illustrates the need of the Turks and how important it was for them to have alliance, to the point where they had new changes in its system. Card #2A: “…eventually ended a stance of neutrality at the end of August 1914 by declaring an alliance with Germany.”Analytics: Stating the end of it neutrality in August implies that before this the Turks were neutral prior to the war.Card #3A: “Russian ecclesiastics, pilgrims, and monks traveling or sojourning in turkey in Europe or in Asia shall enjoy the same rights, advantages, and privileges as the foreign ecclesiastics of any other nationality.”Analytics: Prior to the war, in 1769 the Ottoman empire was defeated by Russia and instead attempted a peace treaty to emit this. This exemplifies how to remain neutral and out of conflicts, the empire attempted at its best to have settling relations with nations.Card #4A: “…now that Turkey had finally abandoned her initial policy of neutrality and fallen in the central powers at the close of October.”Analytics: In Sultan Mehmed V’s proclamation, while talking of the changes and new calls of act to neighboring nations, he states {Insertion of Card #4A}. This portrays the changes from the state before the war and after, and clarifying the country’s initial policy of neutrality.Second Body Paragraph: Why has the country chosen to go to war?Topic Sentence: Because the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers to form the Triple Alliance, with the signing of the August 1914 Turco-German Alliance, the Ottomans needed to be of aid for its allies who were in the war.Evidence:Card #1B: At the Ministerial Council Meeting, July 7, Austria-Hungary comprises “a lengthy list of demands upon the Serbian government.” Although they conceded all demands with little fault, nonetheless, Austrians declared war on the Serbians.”Analytics: Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia after the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Archduke. After Serbia rejected the ultimatum, Austria-Hungary declared war. Austria’s allies were, including the Ottoman Empire, Germany and Italy, who were now in the war because their aid was seekedCard #2B: The two allied parties “agree to observe strict neutrality in regard to the present conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia.” Analytics: This enforces its favor of neutral stance and how the two allied parties, Germany and the Ottoman Empire wanted to keep out, however since they ended up in the war, it means that because Austria was in need of military support for the war, the countries had to go to war. Going to war was not a direct decision and instead were pulled into it at first.Card #3B: Mehmed uses Fetva to encourage “Muslim readers to rise up in arms against those nations currently engaged in war against ottoman empire, chiefly Britain, France, and Russia.”Analytics: The country also took this obligation and turned into into more of a national motive for its people and others to advance with patriotism. To elaborate, Fetva was the holy commandment that Sultan Mehmed uses to encourage “Muslim leaders to rise up in arms against those nations currently engaged in war against Ottoman Empire, chiefly Britain, France, and Russia.”Card #4B: To the questions of if any muslim having to form Jihad when other countries are in trouble and if they should be punished if it was not done so, it answered yes both times by Sheik-ul-Islam.This portrays how alliance loyalty was taken to the extent as to having a religious devotion and how seriously the country was ready to give up many things. Additionally it was even taken as an offence not to support and come of aid for other countries and allies.Third Body Paragraph: Why do their allies fight?Topic Sentence: Although Austria-Hungary has its political settlements to make going to war, the other allies of the nation are fighting because the promised alliance.Evidence:Card #1C: “In case Russia should intervene with active military measures, and should thus bring about a casus foederis for Germany with relation to Austria-Hungary this casus foederis would also come into existence for Turkey.”Analytics: In 1882, Germany, Austria, and Italy formed an alliance, signing a document that promises military support for each other in case of war. The Ottoman Empire later joined in 1914 creating the Central Powers. Because of the alliance, and as can be analyzed from the quote, any militaristic threat or problem directed towards a country will become a shared issue amongst the Central Power.Card #2C: “Germany obligates herself, if necessary by force of arms Ottomans territory in case it should be threatened.”Analytics: This shows how one reason, Germany being an allie of the Ottoman Empire, why the allies fought. As alliances enforce, if a country is in danger or threat, its worries become of its allie meaning that at the call of its allie, it is now their responsibility to aid in the time of need.Card #3C: Crown Prince Wilhelm states, “It is only by reliance upon our brave sword that we shall be able to maintain that place in the sun which belong to us, and which the world does not seem very willing to accord us.”Analytics: This portrays the enthusiastic motive that leaders spread through nationalism and pride in it nation. Here, Prince Wilhelm from Germany, perspectualizes the situation in his book Germany in Arms.Card #4C: “As a response to demands, the Serbian royal government who disapproved it and found anyone who was intact to it would “use all their efforts to anticipate and suppress.”Analytics: If interpreted from the visions of Austria, one of Ottomans allies, were furious of not only the denial of civilian right Austria wanted for its people in Serbia but because of the abrupt and repelling reaction from the country it influenced war aggression.Fourth Body Paragraph: Why do their enemies fight?Topic Sentence: In the alliance of the enemies, the purpose is likewise to the allies of Austria-Hungary – to maintain peace and repel defeat for the purpose of supporting each other with militaristic advancement.Evidence:Card #1D: “France and Russia, being animated by a common desire to preserve peace, and having no other object than to meet the necessities of a defensive war.”Analytics: This portrays the simplistic reason for going to war; France and Russia are only fighting for its defense and for no other potential advantage.Card #2D: In specified region and boundaries in which there are Russian government’s support “Great Britain engages not to seek for herself, and not to support in favour of British subjects, or in favour of the subjects of third Powers, any Concessions of a political or commercial nature…”Analytics: This exemplifies how they are not trying to get into further complexion of war and instead are trying to fight for the purpose of attaining its nations safety of political status by going to the extent of having ruled law regulated boundaries.Card #3D: “These Forces shall engage to the full with such speed that engage to the full with such speed that Germany will have to fight simultaneously on the East and on the West.”Analytics: Strategically, many the countries had to sure to have allies to be able to efficiently fight and work with military strategy. With more back up , the better it would be for the country.Fifth Body Paragraph: Who is at fault?Topic Sentence: In the perspective of the Ottoman Empire, their enemy, the Triple Alliance is at fault and caused the war.Evidence:Card #1E: “Russia, England, and France it was always these powers that started every misfortuned that came upon us.”Analytics: As portrayed here, in Sultan Mehmed V’s proclamation, the Triple Entente, its enemy, is being blamed for disruptions and is being faulted for bringing and causing the war. Card #2E: “Within three months after the conclusion of the definitive peace between His Majesty the Emperor of Russia and His Majesty the Sultan, the Russian army will withdraw completely from European territories of Turkey, with the exception of Bulgaria.”Analytics: The Treaty of San Stefano (1878) was an attempt to resolve the Russo-Turkish War. However, this treaty was opposed by Austria-Hungary and by the British, who both disliked the new influences that the Russians may result and interfere with their rule and influence. The treaty was modified by the terms of the Treaty of Berlin, signed three months later. However, getting to it caused a lot more problems in its way which only lead to more friction between countries.Conclusion: As World War Two started, the Ottoman Empire changed from its initial neutral state by forming alliances with the Central Powers. With parallel reasons, the Ottoman Empire, its allies, and its enemies fought to attain peace and defend its country and its allied countries. In the Ottoman Empire’s perspective, its enemies, the Triple Entente is to be blamed, chiefly Russia. However, perceptually, it can be better argued that Austria is to be blamed. When Austria issued an ultimatum to Serbia after the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Archduke, on July 7, 1914, Serbia conceded many demands. However because they were not willing to give Austrian people equivalent rights of as to Serbian civilian, Austria-Hungary declared war. To justify, a nation should not be held accountable and forced to change its systematic government under another country. If Austria had not declared war, its allies would not have been attached to this and the war would not have started.