of the Philippines
General Santos City
by: Rowena H. Ramping Socio 118:Sociological Theories II
to: Prof. Gerry Jesus Villano TFr / 2:30-4:00
1. What distinguishes Sociology from
Sociology is an independent
sciences. It has its own field of study, boundary and method. It is a social
science and not a physical science. It concentrates attention on man, his
social behavior, social activities and social life. A categorical and not a
normative discipline. Sociology ‘confines itself to statements about what is
not what should be or ought to be’. It is a pure science and not an applied
science. The main aim of pure science is the acquisition of knowledge and it
is not bothered whether the acquired knowledge is useful or can be put to
use. It is relatively an abstract science and not a concrete science. Because
Sociology is not concerned with particular wars and revolution but with war
and revolution in general, as social phenomena, as type’s of social conflict.
Also it is generalizing and not a particularizing or individualizing science
because a Sociology makes generalization on the basis of the study of some
selected events. A general science and not special science. It is concerned
with human interaction and human life in general. And lastly, Sociology is
both rational and empirical science. Empiricism is the approach that
emphasizes experience and the facts that result from observation and
experimentation. Other known as nationalism, reason and the theories that
result from logical inference.
2. Why are the precursors of modern
social science still important?
The precursors of modern social still
important because through this precursors it’s helps us enlightenment about
the scientific method and the application of this into all aspect of society.
Modern Social Science as a whole was built foundation of enlightenment in so
many ways. It’s helps the idea that shape this perspectives were that things
are caused by factors that can be understood scientifically (as opposed to
being caused by God, for example) and also that logic and reason could be
applied to improve society. These ideas led to the beginning of sociology in
that they encouraged a systematic and scientific study of how society comes
to be the way it is. This Modern Social Science has a biggest contribution to
sociology it gives the idea that the world COULD and SHOULD be better.
3. Why is it enlightening to make one’s
own implicit theories explicit?
The implicit-explicit distinction can be
applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude
towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a
property to some entity. Implicit represents merely reflect the property of
objects or events without predicting them of any particular entity. And
becomes explicit, it represents of one’s own attitude of knowing the fact
(Dienes Z, Perner J, 1999).
4. Why can Classical Sociology Theory
be important to Contemporary Social Scientist?
Classical Sociological Theory is more
important to Contemporary Social Scientist not of the reason of being a
primary but because it understand of what we know as the modern world. The
understanding the transition of traditional to modern societies. The
Classical Sociological Theory is framed by the works of Karl Marx, Max Weber,
and Emile Durkheim. This three founders helps us to understand this
transition, its consequences, and ultimately what it will lead to in the
future. Before this transition, the characteristic of traditional and modern
societies must be operationalized. Modernity is defined by the rise of nation
states and also a new conception of the individual whose thoughts and desires
is independent of others (Cedric J. Robinson, 2005). The transition was
motivated by this three founders. Karl Marx relied on a particular
understanding of historical materialist and ‘laws of history’ (Tucker 1978;
Seidman 2004) Max Weber’s, The Protestant Ethics and The Spirit of Capitalism
is a critique of marx’s historical materialism to argue that the material
conditions required to fuel capitalism are not enough and that capitalism
also requires ideological formulations to help create the conditions needed
to transition fully from feudalism to capitalism. Emile Durkheim on the other
hand argued that transition from traditional is an evolutionary process that
requires intervention into primitive societies by advance societies as well
as natural changes.
5. What is the relationship between
religious and scientific knowledge, according to Comte?
According to Comte, Religious is a bond that
encourages individual to subordinate their own self-interests to the interest
of their fellows. It holds a society together in a system of common beliefs.
It also serves to legitimate a society’s institutions, giving them spiritual
support and approval strengthening the status quo, making it seem right and
ordained by God. While Scientific Knowledge passes through stages similar to
societies. Each stage building on the knowledgebase of its predecessor.
Different sciences evolve at different rates. First there was astronomy, then
physics, chemistry, biology, and final sociology. (August Comte 1798-1857)
was Comte’s main motive to write his classical book ‘The Course on the
main motive is to explain how societies evolve in accordance with natural
law. This law consist in the fact that each of our principal conceptions,
each branch of our knowledge, passes in succession through three different
theoretical stage: the Theological or fictitions stage, the Metaphysical or
abstract stage, and the Scientific or positive stage (Paul Descours and H.G.
allow me to discuss the 3 stages in order to explain furthermore about the
main motive of Comte’s “The Course on the Positive Philosophy”
1. Theological stage
explained in terms of:
The human kind, seeking the essential nature of beings, the first and final
causes (origin and purpose) of all effects… supposes all phenomena to be
produced by the immediate action of super natural beings.
2. Metaphysical stage
explained in terms if abstractions:
mind supposes… abstract forces capable of producing all phenomena.
3. Positive stage
to Comte, the Metaphysical stage was just ending, giving way to the final, or
positive stage, in which explanations are based on scientific laws discovered
The mind has given over the search
for absolute notions, the origins and destination of the universe, and the
causes if phenomena, and applies itself to the study of their laws- that is,
their invariable relations of succession and resemblance.
For Comte, each successive stage grew out of the preceding one. “The
constitutions of the new system cannot take places before the distruction of
the old”. (August Comte 1798-1857)
Social Science (/homework-help/topic/soc)
Harriet.(Translator) 1896. The Positive Philosophy of August Comte, Volumes
I, II, and III. London:Bell.
Closer, L. (1971-1977). Masters of
Sociological Thought (2nded.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,Inc.