The his ear, aceremonial beard and a pointed

The False Door of mTw from Saqqara:The False door described in the following pages is housed in the EgyptianMuseum in Tahrir Square, it is known in it as (CG 1397) from the publication ofBorchardt, L., Denkmäler des Alten Reiches (Ausser den statuen) im Museum vonKairo, vol. I, Berlin, 1937.The provenance of this Stela is Saqqara.Dimensions: Height: 166 cm; width: cm.Material: Limestone.Shape: Rectangular False door.Method: incised.Colours: No traces of colours are found.The stela is in a good state of preservation, it displays the usual elements ofa typical false door of late old kingdom design. Texts and figures are incised (1).The edges of the False door displaying the usual cavetto cornice(2) and isframed on either side by a torus moulding(3) which represent the original fibrousbinding.The false door consists of a lintel above the central niche, window-shutterpanel, drum, upper lintel, two outer jambs and two inner jambs.(1) The incised relief began to be used for decorating the false doors in Saqqara by the time ofNeuserre at least and gradually became the predominent form by the end of the fifth dynasty.El-Khadragy, M., Two Old Kingdom false doors from Saqqara, in: GM 174, 2000, p. 43.(2) Which is decorated with incised palm leaves.(3) Wiebach, S., False Door, in: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. I, Oxford,2001, p. 499; The false door with torus moulding and corniches appears at Saqqara – wherethis false door was discovered – in the early fifth dynasty.Strudwick, N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, The Highest Titles andtheir Holders, London, 1985, p. 10; Wiebach, S., Die Ägyptische Scheintür, HÄS 1,Hamburg, 1981, p. 134.The upper lintel is inscribed with a single hieroglyphic horizontalinscription, the lower-framing line of inscriptions delineates the lintel from thejambs.Each of the jambs has at the end of its inscriptions a representation of thedeceased standing facing towards the central niche, on the outer jambs thedeceased is representing wearing a shoulder-length wig covering his ear, aceremonial beard and a pointed kilt, he holds a long staff in one hand and a batonin the other hand.While the inner jambs display mirror images of the deceased who appears ina corpulent figure showing probably a later phase in his life, he is represented withshort hair wearing a long skirt and a broad collar or ribbon and his breasts areflabby.Each of the outer jambs is inscribed with a single hieroglyphic inscription,while the left inner jamb is inscribed with three horizontal inscriptions representinga title of the deceased and his name, on the other hand the right inner jamb isinscribed with two vertical inscriptions representing also a title of the deceased andhis name. The drum and the central niche are undecorated(1).The lower lintel above the drum has a short hieroglyphic inscription naminga title of the deceased and his name.The window-shutter panel displays the usual funerary meal with thedeceased sitting on the left on a law back chair with the back stand visible underthe cushion, the rear of the seat ends in the shape of a lotus flower and the seat’slegs are carved to resemble lion legs. He is facing right wearing an attire similar tothat worn by the figures on the outer jambs also wearing a shoulder-length wig, a(1) Harpur, Y., Decoration in Egyptian Tombs of the Old Kingdom, London and New York,1987, p. 48.broad collar and a knee-length kilt(1), his left hand clapsed to the chest while hisright hand extends towards an offering stand(2).The offering stand is supported by a forked pedestal and loaded with breadslices which are simplified in a rectangular shape with the two bottom corners cutaway to resemble the lower parts of reed-shaped bread slices(3).Beneath the stand to the left rested directly a large nested ewer where theewer’s spout is depicted towards the deceased’s face with basin on a short standand next to that stand to the left also and infront of the deceased is a large offeringtable surmounted with different kinds of bread, a foreleg of beef, a trussed duckand a bundle of lettuce.Above the offering table is an ideographic offering list oriented to the lefttowards the deceased signifying that it is addressed to him(4).The Text:The Upper Lintel:Htp-di-nsw Inpw tpy Dw.f prt-xrw n Xry-tp nswt mTwAn offering which the king gives and Anubis, who is upon his mountain, a voiceoffering to royal chamberlain(5) mTw.(1) Staehelin, E., Untersuchungen zur agyptischen Tracht im Alten Reich, MÄS 8, Berlin, 1966,pl. XXI, fig. 10.(2) Hassan, S., Excavations at Giza, vol. V, Cairo, 1944, pp. 171-172.(3) Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 19.(4) Fischer, H., Egyptian Studies II, The Orientation of Hieroglyphs: Reversals, TheMetropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1977, pp. 63-65.(5) Jones, D., An Index of Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and phrases of the Old Kingdom,vol. II, Oxford, 2000, p. 788:2874.Left outer jamb:Xry-tp nswt sS a nswt mTwroyal chamberlain (and) scribe of the royal documents(1) mTw.Right outer jamb:Imy-r wp(w)t Htp(w)t-nTr mTwOverseer of the divisions of divine offerings(2) mTw.(1) Ibid., vol. II, p. 838: 3057.(2) Jones, D., op.cit., vol. I, p. 97 : 402.Lower lintel:sAb imy-r sSw mTwJuridical overseer of scribes(1) mTw.Left inner jamb:sS a nswt xft-Hr mTwscribe of the royal records in the presence(2) mTw.Right inner jamb:sAb imy-r sSw mTwJuridical overseer of scribes mTw.(1) Ibid., vol. II, p. 803:2933.(2) Ibid., vol. II, p. 839:3063.Panel:Htp-di-nsw prt-xrw n Xry-tp nswt mTwAn offering which the king gives, a voice offering to royal chamberlain mTw.Comments:(1) The name of mTw (stela’s owner) is known as a male name according toRanke since the old kingdom, but he mentioned only one example for thisname which is the owner of the present stela(1), but he had mentioned thatthe feminine form of the name which is mTwt was also afeminine name in the old kingdom(2).(2) The stela beared five titles which are Xry-tp nswt, sS a nswt, imy-r wp(w)tHtp(w)t-nTr, sAb imy-r sSw and sS a nswt xft-Hr2.1. Xry-tp nswt:This title is known from the Archaic period(3), it is often translated as royalchamberlain(4), but it would appear from the continuous usage that the bearer ofthat title had a close connection with the king as a personal servant for him,sometimes in the capacity of a palatine plenipotentiary(5).(1) PN I, p. 167:16.(2) Ibid., p. 167:18.(3) Kaplony, P., Die Inschriften der Ägyptischen Frühzeit, vol. III, ÄA 8, wiesbaden, 1963, p.72:267.(4) Jones, D., An Index of Ancient Egyptian Titles, Epithets and phrases of the Old Kingdom,vol. II, Oxford, 2000, p. 788:2874.(5) Redford, D., “The false-door of Nefer-shu-ba from Mendes”, in: Zahi Hawass and Jenniferwegner (eds.), Millions of Jubilees, studies in Honor of David P. silverman, CASAE 39, vol.II, p. 128.Goedicke reconsidered the reading and meaning of this office, he suggestedits reading to be tpy-Xrt nswt which means: “one who is upon the royalproperty”(1), the title seems to be not a very high rank but is frequently foundamong the titles of scribes and legal officials(2), which already appeared with thepresent stele of MTw, Baud also noted that the present title could be used in avariety of capacities including juridical(3).It is likely that it was granted merely for the materials and commodities thatcame with it(4). Anyway towards the end of the Old Kingdom, the title declined inits classification(5).2.2. sS a nswt2.3 sS a nswt xft-HrThe title sS a nswt appeared in the middle of the fourth dynasty at Saqqarain the tomb of isi and in Giza in the tomb of nfr (6) and continuous through to theend of the Old Kingdom(7), the holders of that title were responsible for writing andand administration of documents(8).(1) Goedicke, H., “Titles for Titles”, in: S. Allam (ed.), Grund und Boden in Alten Ägypten,Tübingen, 1994, pp. 227-234.(2) Strudwick, N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, The Highest Titles andtheir Holders, London, 1985, p. 310.(3) Baud, M., Famille royale et pouvoir sous l’Ancien Empire égyptien, vol. II, Caire, 1999, p.664.(4) Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 231, n.21.(5) Posener-Kriéger, P. , « vous transmettrez vos fonctions à vos enfants … », CRIPEL 13, 1991,1991, p. 109 (d).(6) Strudwick, N., op. cit., pp. 65-66 (17), pp. 109-110 (84).(7) Ibid., p. 211.(8) Ibid., p. 210.The Second title is related to the first one, where the element xft-Hr referredto the presence of the king(1), the two titles were found four times in the titulariesof imy-r sS a nswt.The title sS a nswt xft-Hr is first attested in the middle or later of the fifthdynasty, but it became a frequent sixth dynasty title(2).There were seventy four Memphite holders for the title sS a nswt whilethere were only thirty officials held the title sS a nswt xft-Hr from which therewere only seven holders held the two titles(3), one of those seven is MTw the ownerof the present stela.The most common honorific title with sS a nswt was rx nswt while with sSa nswt xft-Hr was Xry-tp nswt, while in the sixth dynasty Xry-tp nswt was morecommon than rx nswt with sS a nswt, Strudwick noted that the title sS a nswt xftHr was more common in the sixth dynasty than sS a nswt(4).He also mentioned that the title sS a nswt xft-Hr outranked sS a nswt in thelater sixth dynasty(5).Thus we can conclude that mTw was first a sixth dynasty official from thelater sixth dynasty and he promated from sS a nswt to sS a nswt xft-Hr.(1) Jones, D., op. cit., vol. II, p. 839 :3063.(2) Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 211.(3) Ibid., p. 211.(4) Ibid., p. 211.(5) Ibid., p. 211, which can be used as a dating criteria for the present stela as well.2.4 imy-r wp(w)t Htpt-nTrThis title is nowhere associated directly with a temple(1), Baer noted that theoffice was connected at least once with a royal pyramid(2), although it is held by aHeliopolitan high priest(3).It is worth mentioning that on the walls of the tomb of Iri-n-Axt -discoveredby Selim Hassan- he mentioned the latter titles which are identical to that of mTwwhich are: imy-r wp(w)t Htpt-nTr, sS a nswt, sAb imy-r sSw and Xry-tp nswt (4),which means that these titles were found with each others frequently.The title in question was attested beside the title sS a nswt on a smallobelisk from Heliopolis(5), this title concern with the divisions of offerings and thisofferings come through serfs, fields, land holders and also funerary priests(6).(1) Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B.C Down to the Theban domination of UpperEgypt, New York, 1968, pp. 66, 222.(2) Baer, K., Rank and Title in the Old Kingdom, The Structure of the Egyptian Administrationin the fifth and sixth dynasties, Chicago, 1960, p. 250; Jones, D., op. cit., vol. I, p. 98:404Imy-r wp(w)t Htp(w)t-nTr mn-anx-Nfr-kA-Ra (pepi II’s pyramid complex).(3) Brovarski, E., “Tempelpersonal I”, in: LÄ VI, p. 391.(4) Hassan, S., Excavations at Giza, vol. VI, part III, The mastabas of the sixth season and theirdescription, Cairo, 1950, pp. 9, 11.(5) Daressy, G., La necropole des grands prêtres d’Héliopolis sous l’Ancien Empire, ASAE16, 1916, p. 212. (which appeared also on the present stela of MTw).(6) according to the following titles:Imy-r wpt Htp(w)t-nTr m mrt AHtJones, D., op. cit., vol. I, p. 99:405.Imy-r wp(w)t xnty(w)-SIbid., p. 99:408.Imy-r wpt Hm(w)-kAFischer, H., op. cit., p. 222.2.5. sAb imy-r sSwThis title is translated as “juridical overseer of scribes” or in case of readingimy-r sS(w) n sAb it is translated as “overseer of scribes of the judiciary”(1).According to Helck, it is probably with these put their bearers asmembers in the legal(2), he also seems justified in his assumption that the elementsAb serves to define the administrative category of the latter(3). (the writers in thepresent care) i.e. the bearers of that title were writers in the court.Helck also noted that it is emphatic that sAb alone isn’t an independenttitle but always found only infront of other titles(4).So, we can conclude from the last title that MTw was overseer of writers orscribes in the court.Dating:As for the date, this false door possesses some later features whichfrequently appear on false doors of the end of Old Kingdom particularly thedynasties (VI-VIII)(5).(1) Jones, D., op. cit., vol. II, p. 803 :2933.(2) Helck, W., Untersuchungen zu den Beamtentiteln des ägyptischen Alten Reiches, Glückstadt,1954, p. 82.(3) Fischer, H., “A scribe of the Army in a Saqqara mastaba of the early Fifth dynasty”, JNES18, 1959, p. 265 (14).(4) Helck, W., op. cit., p. 82.(5) For the false doors criteria of dating, see:Wiesbach, S., Die ägyptische scheintür: Morphologische studien zur Entwicklung undBedeutung der Hauptkultstelle in den privatgräbern des Alten Reiches, Hamburg, 1981, pp.8-10, 128-141; Brovarski, E., False Doors & History: the Sixth Dynasty, in: M. Barta (ed.),The Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology, prague, 2006, pp. 71-118.; Idem, False Doors . The First Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom, in: D.p. Silverman, W.K.Simpson, J. Wenger (eds.), Archaism and Innovation, studies in the culture of MiddleKingdom Egypt, New Haven, 2009, pp. 359-423.(1) The T-shaped panel which adopted frequently in the Memphite necropolis,This form as suggested by Gunn be a rectangular wooden shutter swingingon two horizontal pivots at the top corners(1).This design of panels probably started about the mid-sixth dynasty-perhapsthe earliest example is that of ©d-ppy the eldest son of the vizier xnty-kAi /ixxi (2).This vizier probably out-lived his king Teti and witnessed the early years ofhis successor Pepy I(3), that would date the vizier’s son to the later part ofPepy I’s reign and the early part of that of Pepy II – particularly in the reignof Pepy II(4).This panel design then became a favourite style and remained in use duringthe end of the Old Kingdom and there after(5).(2) The addition of a torus moulding and cavetto cornice was considered a sixthdynasty norm, contra this date it was very much an indication of theimportance or the status of the stela’s owner(6), it is perhaps important tonote that the presence of cornice decoration wasn’t before the late sixthdynasty as it became a norm irrespective to the social status of the stela’sowner(7).(1) Firth, C., and Gunn, B., Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, vol. I, Cairo, 1926, p. 176, n. 6.(2) James, T. and Apted, M., The Mastaba of Khentika called Ikhekhi, ASE 30, London, 1953,pl. 42.(3) Strudwick, N., The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom, The Highest Titles andtheir Holders, Oxford, 1985, pp. 125-126 (109).(4) Ibid., p. 36.(5) Ibid., p. 18.(6) Wiebach, S., Die ägyptische Scheintür: Morphologische studien zur Entwicklung undBedeutung der Hauptkultstelle in den privatgräbern des Alten Reiches, Hamburg, 1981, pp.133-135.(7) Idem, “False Door”, in: D. Redford (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. I,I, Oxford, 2001, p. 500.(3) The using of false doors with two jambs and a narrow one with only onecoloumn of inscription is a feature not known before the reign of Pepy II,Despite this feature was attested in the doors of the viziers ra-wr and ssi -where each contained two pairs of jambs- it was a rear feature at that time,while the usage of a single coloumn of inscriptions in the jamb wasn’tknown until the reign of Pepy II(1), which might be due to its affordable costat the end of the Old Kingdom.(4) The appearance of the loaves on the panel offering table in a level reachedthe level of the shoulders of the deceased is a feature attested in the fifthdynasty but it was resumed in the sixth dynasty since the reign of Pepi II(2).(5) The feminine form of the name of the stela’s owner was found at Saqqara –the same necropolis of the present stela- and its owner was dated to the 6thdynasty(3), so the masculine form MTw might be known much earlier or at thethe same time of the feminine form.(6) The owner of the stela beard the title sS a nswt xft-Hr which is verycommon in the sixth dynasty.(7) The title sS a nswt xft-Hr out ranked sS a nswt in the later sixth dynasty(4),also a dating criteria in the sixth dynasty the title Xry-tp nswt was morecommon than rx-nswt with sS a nswt (5) which appears on the present stela.(8) There is also a parallel false door stela dated to the sixth dynasty in whichtwo titles of the present stela where held by its owner(6).(1) Strudwick, N., op. cit., pp. 17, 36.(2) Ibid., p. 20.(3) Mariette, A., Les Mastabas de l’Ancien Empire, Maspero, G. (ed.), Paris, 1885, p. 402.(4) Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 211.(5) Ibid., p. 211.(6) This false door was published by Ahmed El-sawi, it is located in the Egyptian museum (JdE36808), where its owner imm held the titles sS a nswt xft-Hr and sAb imy-r sSw which provealso that these titles were common in the sixth dynasty, cf. El-Sawi, A., Three Old Kingdomstelae from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, ASAE 70, 1987, pp. 68, 69.Iconographic features of dating:(1) The appearance of a limited space between the seated figure of the deceasedand the back of the chair on the panel, is an iconographic feature firstappeared in the reliefs of Ibi at Deir el-Gebrawi(1), who is dated according toBear to the early of Pepi II (V I D)(2), and was used frequently there afterparticularly in the art of provinces(3). So it is probably that this featurebecame frequent from the early of Pepy II or at least the middle of his reignand there after spread all over Egypt Including Saqqara.(2) The simplified shape of the bread slices was perhaps favored as a rapid andeasy way of representing them(4) in the later part of the Old Kingdom.(1) Davies, N. de G., Rock Tombs of Deir el Gebrâwi,vol. I, ASE 11, London, 1902, pls. 6, 8-9,12, 19.(2) Baer, K., Rank and Title in the Old Kingdom, the structure of the Egyptian Administration inthe Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, Chicago, 1960, p. 288 (32); Kanawati, N., The EgyptianAdministration in the Old Kingdom, Warminster, 1977, p. 51.(3) it appeared in:? Dendera: cf., Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B.C. down to the Thebandomination of Upper Egypt, New York, 1968, pls. XXIV, XXV-XXVIII.? Naqada: cf., Idem, Inscriptions from the Coptite Nome Dynasties VI-XI, Rome, 1964, pls.XII, XXI, XIII, XXX.? Hagarsa: cf., Kanawati, N., The Tombs of El-Hagarsa, vol. III, Sydney, 1995, pl. 41.? Busiris: cf., Fischer, H., Some early monuments from Busiris in the Egyptian Delta, MMJ11, 1976, figs. 8-9.? Naga-ed-Der: cf., Dunham, D., Naga-ed-Dêr stelae of the First Intermediate Period,London, 1937, pls. XI (2), XXII (1).(4) This simplified shape of the bread slices probably first appeared as unfinished relief, whendealing about its first occurrence, there were two opinions, the first one claims that thissimplified form of bread slices first appeared on the false door of the vizier iHy from Unascemetery.(Strudwick, N., op. cit., p. 63 (15)).While others claim that the earliest occurrence of that feature is that of queen Iput(Firth, C. and Gunn, B., Teti Pyramid Cemeteries, vol. II, Cairo, 1926, pl. 55,1)Who was the wife of king Teti and mother of his successor Pepi I, also daughter of kingUnas.(Seipel, W., “I put I”, LÄ III, p. 176).Anyway, This rectangular bread-like shape was frequently in use from then by Artists as asimple technique for producing bread slices above the offering table.Cf., Jéquier, G., La Pyramide d’Oudjebten, Cairo, 1928, p. 30, fig. 37 ; Borchardt, L.,Denkmäler des Alten Reiches, vol. I, Berlin, 1937, p. 147 (CG 1458); Abdalla, A., TheCenotaph of the Sekwashket family from Saqqara, JEA 78, 1992, p. 107.(3) The deceased appeared on the inner Jambs of the false door in the corpulentor mature representation which is an artistic feature appeared frequentlyfrom the second half of the sixth dynasty(1).(4) Another dating criteria is the length of the skirt worn by the corpulent figureof the deceased and the placing of the waist, navel and the buttocks higheron the figure points to the Late Old Kingdom(2).(5) The deceased is represented on the panel sitting on a low back chair wherethe chair’s leg imitates those of a lion which is a feature infrequent for nonroyal reliefs of the fourth dynasty(3), but it became much more frequent onthose reliefs dating to the end of the fifth dynasty(4) and are quite common onthose of the sixth dynasty(5).(6) The wig worn by the deceased on the panel and the outer jambs, whichcovers the ears, this type of wig is a characteristic feature of the Second OldKingdom Style(6).(1) Fischer, H., A scribe of the Army in a Saqqara Mastaba of the early Fifth Dynasty, JNES 18,1959, pp. 245-246; Idem., Some early monuments from Busiris in the Egyptian Delta, MMJ11, 1976, p. 14, n. 51; Harpur, Y., Decoration in Egyptian Tombs of the Old Kingdom,London, 1987, pp. 131-133, tb.6.9.(2) Fischer, H., op. cit., JNES 18, 1959, pp. 245-246, fig. 10e.(3) Reisner, G., A History of the Giza Necropolis, vol. I, Cambridge, 1942, pls. 18 (a, b), 39 (a),40 (b).(4) Davies, N. de G., The Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqareh, part II, ASE 9,London, 1901, pls. 13, 14, 24, 34; Paget, R. and Pirie, A., The Tomb of Ptah-hetep, London,1898, pls. 34-35, 38, 39.(5) The mastabas of Qar and Idu at Giza, Simpson, W.K. and Dunham, D., The Mastabas of Qarand Idu, G 7101 and 7102, Boston, 1976, pls. VII c, XIV a, XXVI b, XXVI b, XXIX d, figs.20, 23.The mastaba of Khentika at Saqqara, James, T. and Apted, M., The Mastaba of Khentikacalled Ikhekhi, ASE 30, London, 1953, passim; the mastaba of Mereruka at Saqqara, Duell,P. et al., The Mastaba of Mereruka, part I, Chicago, 1938, pls. 57, 78, 88, 96;Fischer, H., Varia Nova, New York, 1996, p. 146.(6) Brovarski, E., A Second Style in Egyptian Relief of the Old Kingdom, in: S.E. Thompsonand P. Der Manuelian (eds.), Egypt and beyond: Essays presented to Leonard H. Lesko,Brown, 2008, p. 52, fig. 1, pl. 1; p. 55, fig. 2; pp. 83-84.Paleographical Features of dating:(1) The position of the Htp sign after the nsw-sign is typical of the Htpdi-nsw formula used during the Old Kingdom(1).(2) The classic arrangement writing of with elongated bread istypical of Late Old Kingdom(2).(3) The appearance of the beer jar determinative without handles is a Late OldKingdom feature but it became a standard linguistic feature of theHerakleapolitan Period(3).(4) The writing of the older form of Anubis on a stand in place of oris attested in the early sixth dynasty(4) and became frequent in the reign ofPepy II(5).From the previous, I am inclined to date this false door by the sixth dynastyparticularly the reign of Pepy II or slightly later contra Borchardt who dated thisstela by the Middle Kingdom(6).(1) Lapp, G., Die Opferformel des Alten Reiches, SDAIK 21, Mainz, 1986, p. 1, However, thisarrangement is typical of ninth dynasty at Naga-ed-Der, Brovarski, E., The inscribed Materialof the First Intermediate Period from Naga-ed-Der, vol. I, Ann Arbor, 1989, p. 209. So itmay appeared in the Memphite necropolis before its appearance in the provinces.(2) Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B. C. down to the Theban domination of UpperEgypt, New York, 1968, p. 84 (14).(3) Probably the earlier example of that writing is derived from the hieratic documents,Goedicke, H., Old Hieratic Paleography, Baltimore, 1988, p. 46 a-b (w22); Daoud, K.,Corpus of inscriptions of the Herakleopolitan Period from the Memphite Necropolis, Oxford,2005, p. 98.(4) Cf., James.T. and Apted, M., The Mastaba of Khentika called Ikhekhi, ASE 30, London,1953, pls. 7, 13.(5) Davies, N. de G., The Rock Tombs of Deir el Gebrâwi, vol. I, ASE 11, 1902, pl. 18; vol. II,ASE 12, 1902, pls. 8, 12, 21; Fischer, H., Dendera in the Third Millennium B.C., pl. VIII (onthe stela of wti which dated to the end of the sixth dynasty).(6) Borchardt, L., Denkmäler des Alten Reiches im Museum von Kairo, vol. I, Berlin, 1937,p.5