the into two types: teleological and deontological. Teleological

the moral foundation of ethics in an it profession


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 In recent years, the IT ethics has exploded in
both volume and importance because of ethical beliefs and decision-making. This
will explore the problems and ethical conflicts that might come across in an IT
based working place and would provide readers ways of how to avoid having
unethical behavior and methods of ethical analysis and also how to face ethical
dilemmas with the help of using the code of ethics whenever needed. It would
also talk about topics such as data protection and privacy, cloud
computing, computer security, data monitoring, software piracy, social
consequences and ethical behavior. In addition, providing acts which are not
morally right to do and ways of helping both parties which would be in



Data protection and
privacy, cloud computing, IT ethics, software piracy, data monitoring,



Computer ethics

Moore proposed that the
study of computer ethics is needed because there is a vacuum of policies adjoining
the new opportunities. He defines computer ethics as the study of the nature
and social impact of computer technology and the conforming origination and reason
of policies for the ethical use of this technology. Ethical concepts provide groups
and actions for defining what is ethically relevant. There are various paths of
ethical thinking. Modern ethical concepts can be divided into two types:
teleological and deontological. Teleological ethical theories talk about the
concerns and the outcome results, end goals and reasons. They normally chose  the good over the right, and they assess
actions by the goal or concerns that they attain. Utilitarianism, a form of consequentialism,
a theory shows the assumption that values determine the rightness or wrongness
of moral actions is an example of teleological method to ethics.  Deontological ethical theories focus on the
act done by the agent and the duties, rights, privileges or tasks that relate
to the doings. According to a deontological framework, actions are essentially
right or wrong regardless of the consequences they might give. Deontological
theories include both duty-based and rights-based methods to ethical perceptive,
sometimes raised to as pluralism or contractarianism correspondingly. The vital
difference between the two theories is that deontological perspectives focus on
the precise actions or behaviors of an individual while teleological
perspectives focus on the penalties of the actions. (McCarthy et al., 2005)  


Data protection and

Personal privacy and the defense of
personal identifying information are of anxiety to all of us. Countless
articles and conferences talk about our loss of privacy, either through the
sale of customer databases or our own inattention which may lead to it.
Opinions may differ from “You have no privacy; get over it” to
“This is the end of civil liberties as we know them. We teach people to
safely maneuver on the Internet and minimize their exposure to bogus sites set
up to steal their identity, warn users about the dangers of phishing and
posting personal information on social network sites, use firewalls to protect
our databases, and enact laws such as the Health Insurance Portability and
Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
(FERPA) to protect information. However, what are the data custodians doing
with the information in their possession? In addition, what about the companies
that are mining the vast stores of raw data that are just waiting to be
converted to knowledge? Exploring this topic is the raison d’être of this book,
written by a financial reporter for the Washington Post. (kessler, 2007)


Cloud computing

Though an developing paradigm, genomic
cloud computing can be defined as a scalable service where genetic sequence
information is stored and processed virtually (i.e., in the ‘cloud’) usually
via networked, large-scale data centers accessible remotely through various
clients and platforms over the Internet. Rather than buying more servers for
the local research site, as was done in the past, genomic cloud computing
allows researchers to use techniques, such as application programming interfaces
(APIs) to launch servers These may run on specific clouds provided by cloud
service providers (CSPs).according to Edward S dove, ” One of the greatest fears
about storing data in cloud data bases is that wether the saved data is actually
safe. Programmers may fear that storing data on the cloud will lead to illegal
access to massive amounts of data, responsibility and reputation damage that
could lead up to a obligatory breach notice, such as that stated in HIPAA. Even
if this huge amount of data was to be exposed of identifiers may not create
‘personal health information’ for HIPAA or other similar health information
privacy law loyalties, recent literature suggests that this could probably
change”. Therefore, users have reason to really consider the security issues of
genomic cloud computing and the role of privacy laws established. (Edward S Dove, 2015)


Data security and confidentiality on a operational
level, there is a difference between the nature of cloud computing, according
to the idea of ‘locationlessness’ (or at least unrelated localization), and
data privacy laws, which are still created upon geographic borders and
location-specific data dealing out systems. As a cloud, computing is fundamentally
built on the idea of unified, borderless distribution and storing of data, it
can run into difficulties with various national jurisdictions governing
citizens’ rights over privacy and protection of their personal data. ofcourse,
as cloud computing allows personal data to be conveyed across national,
regional and/or provincial borders, where slight consensus exists about which consultants
have jurisdiction over the data, cloud clients and suppliers will each need to
understand and obey with the different rules in country—to the extent where
such rules exist. In an environment where data exchange by investigators is no
longer a point-to-point business within one country but instead is considered
by transnational, vibrant and decentralized flow, the legal difference between
national and international data use may become less expressive than it was in
the earlier times. (Edward S Dove, 2015)


Data monitoring

Control issues come in Terms of Service
sections relating to data monitoring. Can the CSP monitor present genomic data,
and even so, what method should the monitoring use and what circumstances
should be applied in such a case. However most commercial CSPs encrypt data
while in the transferring process, users or programmers should still confirm
that the data are encrypted properly Furthermore, if it is developers that
encrypt the data, they should request whether the CSP to have permission to
decryption keys. Although monitoring the speed or traffic of data consumption
may be adequate, developers could be worried with a CSP nursing personal data
or collective genomic data uploaded in the cloud servers, even if such nursing
is to guarantee acquiescence with an acceptable use policy. (Edward S Dove, 2015)


Software piracy

Software piracy is an
important upcoming crime which investigators need to look into. Precisely,
given the fact that software piracy can head to long prison sentences and/or charges,
that it is aggressively being implied, and that it has numerous different states
of charging, the performance is a considerable problematic which is in need of a
solution soon. Sherizen (1995) stated that: there is a nish for information
security to regulate how to change the existing ways concerning the risks of
getting caught in computer crime investigations as well as the professed
payoffs of such illegal activities. Early and present-day software piracy
researchers have tried to silhouette the idealistic software pirate. these research
shows that college students are disposed for software piracy because: they were
never guided on what was and was not expected of them when it comes to hardware
and software use, they haven’t been familiarized with the law, and they will be
generally opposed with ethical dilemmas reinforced many of these views from
Cook (1986, 1987), and presented that most students did not accept that the
current university policies about unlicensed software were actually in use.
Hinduja (2003) also maintained the view of Cook (1986, 1987) that college
students were confronted with ethical concerns, dilemmas and choices, and recommended
that software pirates were likely to contribute in other ways of unethical
behavior such as speculative fraudulence. (George E. Higgins, 2006)


In conclusion to this
essay unethical behaviors are varied and different from industry to industry
and IT industry being the spotlight in the current century makes it more
prominent to the current world. Although employees are the center of most
businesses these behaviors affect them or happen because of them in a close
context. This behavior may differ from the ethical and legality aspect of any
business organization. And hence while recruiting and employee the
repercussions of such behaviors has to be stated beforehand and this way the
person doing it and the person witnessing it can be aware of it and avoid them
in the near future.

Lastly business
ethical issues will always exist in an organization and the key to overcome
these successfully is to provide proper training to the employees on ethics and
to have a favorable relationship with them in order to uplift the ethical
behavior of the work place.