The operate on the harsh environment of Venus.

The atmosphere of Venus is one of the harsh environments in our solar system.
Exploring planet Venus has been always an interesting subject for mankind. Improving
understanding of Venus and its greenhouse effect atmosphere and geology has relevance
to a better understanding of the Earth and solar system formation. The main
problem is the high surface temperature of Venus that is approximately 452 ?C (850
F).

Venus is very similar to Earth in size, initial composition, and solar radioactive
influences. However, its present planetary conditions contrast drastically from
that of Earth. The surface of Venus has been explored by a number of missions
from Earth, In pervious last years, some probes has been sent to Venus to examine
its surface due to the high temperature and high pressure on the surface of
Venus they did not survive more than two hours. However, the research on Venus
planet surface is  limited due to the lack
of electronics components sensor systems which has to operate on the harsh
environment of
Venus.

The missions to the Venus planet have significant value but most of sensors
and electronic components cannot operate at the 450 ?C temperature of surface of
Venus. The new generation of wide band gap semiconductors devices that are  silicon carbide, diamond, and gallium nitride have
tendency to operate on at temperatures from 500°C to 650°C. Till now, the wide band
gap devices has perform a few minutes to a few hours of durability when these
wide band gap devices are electronically operate at high temperature. For very
high temperature of Venus surface, wide band gap devices must best and stable
for long time operation under electrical devices at 450°C temperature without any
prominent drift in electrical operating parameters.

In this report, i am going to discuss about high temperature electronic
devices and materials that operates on high temperature environment of Venus
Planet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2- Venus Planet

Venus is the second planet from the Sun and the sixth largest planet of
solar system. Venus is very only planet that is same in structure and size to
Earth. Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system with surface temperature
that is enough to melt lead. Venus has a harsh atmosphere and its atmosphere
consist of carbon dioxide with clouds of sulfuric acid. Recently, scientists
have detected small amounts of water traces in the atmosphere. The surface of
Venus is very dry. During its evolution, ultraviolet rays from the sun
evaporated its water very quickly.

The orbital period of Venus is 225 days.
The atmosphere of Venus is 90 times denser
than earth.

With a radius of 6,052 kilometers, Venus is
roughly the same size as Earth.
Composition of atmosphere is of 96.5% of
CO2 and 3% of nitrogen.
Venus is only a 30% closer to the Sun than
Earth.
Surface pressure 92 bars.
Venus has an iron core that is
approximately 3,200 kilometers in radius.
Venus is the second planet from the sun and
our closest planetary neighbor.
Distance from the sun is approximately 67
million miles.
Venus spins slowly in the opposite direction
of most planets.

 

3- What is Venus Probe and history?

Venus is planet that has been reached first by a
space probe. In 1962, Mariner 2 was collected the information from surface of Venus
and thses information was about its temperature, atmosphere and rotational periods.
The Venera 7 was the first probe to land on the surface of Venus. But unfortunately,
it was out of operation within an hour after reaching the surface of Venus due
to high temperature and pressure. In 1982, Venera 13 has transmitted the first
color pictures from the surface of Venus.

However, till now, Venera 13 has survived the longest on Venus’ surface
for approximately 2 hours. Another way is to actually send a probe to the
atmosphere of Venus instead of planet surface. The Vega 1 balloon in 1984 survived
for 47 hours at a height of 53 Km from the planet’s surface. But for my report,
I will just be talking about the probe landing on the surface and look into selecting
and implementing novel design ideas for high temperature electronics for such a
mission.

The Magellan spacecraft, launched in 1989, arrived at Venus on August
10, 1990. Before its demise in October 1994, Magellan was able to collect radar
images of 98% of Venus’ surface. The below table shows the probe that has been
landed on the atmosphere and surfaces of Venus an there survival times.

Venus Express is the ESA’s (European Space Agency) first mission to the planet Venus. It is launched in
November 2005 and it reached at Venus planet in April 2006 and sending back
information to the earth from Venus.