Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a well-thought out set of procedures for making and
examining the inputs and outputs materials and the connected effects on the
surrounding condition directly caused by the functioning of a productor service system throughout its life cycle.
I. Life Cycle Analysis of Paper Bags
Based on J.K. Lakshmipat (2012) trees provide the
most important raw material for the paper. Wood is made from is cellulose in the form of fiber. Cellulose fiber can found in many
vegetable tissues that can be freely being pulled
mechanicalor chemical means. These sources are so much many in plant species from which it can be
from, and the number of species gives fiber which could be used for paper runs
The trees are cut down and the trunk is put into a chipping machine where it is cut into verysmall pieces. Then the wood chips that contain cellulose are boiled in water to form a thick wood
Fresh river water is used in paper making process. The pulp is washed
make better, cleaned and sometimes removed the color
then turned to slushin the beater. Color dyes, coatings and other are mixed
in, and the pulp slush is pumped onto a moving wire screen. As the pulp goes down the screen, water is drained away and recycled. The resulting very
simple, rough and rude paper sheet, or web, is press between large rollers to remove most of the
remaining water and secure
of smoothness and uniform thickness. The pulp is spilled
over a fine mesh and the water escapes leaving the cellulose fiber behind. The finished paper is
wound into large rolls, which can be 30 feet wide and weigh close to 25 tons. A slitter cuts thepaper into smaller, and the paper is ready for use. That will form papers. V. Ryan (2004)
Based on Times Op-Ed (2013) the average person
who uses a product or service uses 500 bags a year, about 80 percent plastic and 20 percent paper. Plastic bags cost stores like grocery stores
2 cents to 5 cents each, and paper ones cost
5 cents to 23 cents.
In study that managed and done by, Edelman Berland they found out that gauge person
who uses a product perceptions of different types of bags, to specify how often
reusable bags are used to, and to try and established the future that plastic and paper bags will
continue to play in checkout lines. The person
who responded that was surveyed composed of people who have either received or bought reusable non-wovenpolypropylene (NWPP) bags–roughly 28 percent of a nationwide sample. J. Eick (2014)
Kathryn Sukalich (2016) stated that in 2011, over 66.8 percent of paper used
destroyed in the United States was recycled. Each ton of papers that recycled saves more than 3.3 cubic
yards where garbage and trash is dumped space, and if they measure through weight, more paper is recovered for recycling than plastic, aluminum and glass combined. Paper is amaterial that used to recycling, since 87%
(percent) in community of people have access to
reduceside or drop-off recycling for paper. So basically after
the person used papers they will collecting it and recycled again.
These papers carefully study the life cycle of papers because paper bags is made of paper that
usually used as shopping bags, packaging, and big sacks.
II. Life Cycle Analysis of Plastic Bags
Plastic bags are made from an obiquitous polymer substance polyethylene. This kindof substance begins as ethylene, and it is commonly pulled
out from natural gases, and then treated to become the polymer, that forming long chains of carbonand hydrogen atoms. These chains will be depending on what type of polyethylene is being used, but they all help create different types of plastic bags. T. Lacoma (2017). A Polythene is producedfrom oil
extracted from the ground and natural gas, two non-renewable useful
things/valuable supplies is found underground, through a process known as the tubular film process.
Basically there are many types of polyethylene in creating plastic bags the
HDPE, PETE, LDPE, LLDPE, PVC, PP, and PS. The HDPE stands for high density
polyethylene, it is the most and common type of polyethylene used to create
shopping bags. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET or PETE) is tough, clear and has
good gas and moisture barrier compositions that making it ideal for carbonated
beverage applications and other food Tupperware or containers. The LDPE is made
from low density, branching chains of polymer materials. This chain
makes a very light, almost film like plastic that is used to make the tear-away
bags dry cleaners that are used for wrapping cleaned clothes. The LLDPE is connected
to linear low density polyethylene; these plastics do not branch, but also
didn’t have the same strength as HDPE versions. It means that the
shopping bags created from LLDPE plastics need to be thicker and heavier weight
that traditional grocery bags. PVC is known as Polyvinyl Chloride which
is excellent transparency, chemical resistance, long term stability, good
weather ability and stable electrical properties. The flexible vinyl is used in
wire and cable sheathing, insulation, film and sheet, flexible floor coverings,
and others. The Polypropylene (PP) has excellent chemical resistance and it is
commonly used in packaging. Polypropylene is found in everything that are
flexible and rigid packaging to fibers for fabrics and carpets and consumer products.
Then Polystyrene (PS) is a versatile plastic that can be rigid. The general
purpose of polystyrene is clear, hard and brittle. Its clarity allows it to be
used when transparency is important, as in medical and food packaging, and
in certain electronic uses.
According to Rutan Poly Businesses, INC.
(2014) to create plastic bags the process is
just like the process for creating a book. There are two steps to make plastic bags the process known as”extrusion” first step in making a plastic bag. An extruder is used to heat the polyethylene plastic
to a temperature of up to 500 degrees F that can melt the pellets, and then the (hot)
liquid plastic flow into machine and a die that decides
the thickness that the bag will produce. After
that, the plastic film is pushed into a bubble by the outside air and through a cooling
process. Then the film will cut into the appropriate size and then placed onto a spindle. On the
second step, once the plastic bag is placed onto the spindle, it will go into conversion department. This
group of people will unwraps the filmroll and cuts it with a heated knife that also seals each of the sides of the bags together and
conversion department also adds some characters on it. Lastly handles are cut out using a heat process, and logos, designs and text is added to the bag. On plastic bags the chemicals is in use are the commonly
taken from natural gases and natural oil that involves the types of polyethylene.
Based on Plastic Industry over 150,000 plastic bags capable on two pallets. The same number of
paper bags would fill a 40ft truck. Plastic is also very strong. Supermarket bags can hold at least
22lb of shopping. Some hold twice that. Every year, each person consumes 216 plastics and guessed
amounts of 500 billion are being used around the globe each year. It is commonly usefor shopping and being thrown for an average of 20 minutes. Daily Mail Reporter (2008)
showed that the five trillion carrier bags produced each year start life as oil
extracted from the ground. Demand is so high that 0.2% of the world’s oil is used to make them – about 60 millionbarrels.
Based on the test/evaluation over 86,000-117,000 tons 18kg per person of after-
a product or service plastic packaging waste was created in Finland in 2014. Inmajority,
84% of the waste was in the mixed MSW flow in 2014. In year 2016, almost 40% of the
plastic packaging could become available for recycling. Because launching new sorting facilities and separate collections for after
plastic packaging. Because of this , 50% recycling rate for
after plastic packaging (other than PET bottles) would be needed to increase the overall MSW recycling rate from the current 41% by around twopercentage points. H. Dahlbo, et al.
you can see from the information above, creating plastic bags is a fairly
simple and easy process that industry can do quickly and without a lot of
trouble. A lot of bags can be produced in only a few minute, and since the
process is so easy, the cost of the plastic bags keeps down to an affordable
price. Plastic bags are very easy to be made and they have so many different
purposes that make them handy in our everyday lives.
as you can see paper bags came from trees, a lot of trees in logging
industries. The trees are found, marked and felled in a process that all too
often involves clear-cutting, resulting in huge destruction and
long-term ecological damage. Needs a mega machinery that requires fossils to
operate. Then in the process of making papers it needs a lot of materials to
create a product. But in terms of raw material, paper bags are much better to
use since it is renewable, recyclable and biodegradable unlike plastic bags, scientist
estimate it takes 400 to 1,000 years to vanish. Then In terms of effect
on the surrounding conditions, paper bags aremuch safer since it is made of wood from trees while plastic bags main part is HDPE or HighDensity Polyethylene and the very
harmful chemicals that involves on it for ending up in (rivers,
streams, etc.) that lead to our oceans. Plastic bags are cheaper than paper bags, but may be worse for the
health of the Earth/the surrounding conditions.