Thesis Statement:Human interaction with lakes and streams have disrupted their ability to provide organisms with “free” ecosystem services. Publication #1 Summary: (Only had abstract and Intro.)https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00633711Angelidis, Michael O., et al. “Impact of Human Activities on the Quality of River Water: The Case of Evrotas River Catchment Basin, Greece.” SpringerLink, Kluwer Academic Publishers, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00633711.During a monitoring study the quality of the receiving waters of the Eurotas River was investigated from August 1991 to August 1992. The part of the river that was located near the city Sparta, was influenced seasonally by the drainage of orange juice plants and septage for emptying cesspools. In some parts of the river high concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected in the water during the winter and spring. This could be caused by the leaching of the applied fertilizers due to the soil erosion from the previous seasons rainfall. Sufficient treatment of septage and development of wastewater treatment plants for the major surrounding industries could aid in the protection of the river. Since the development of humanity around fresh waters river management has also existed. Most of river management traditionally is aimed towards increasing water sources, preventing floods, the development of fisheries’ capacity, and increasing recreation facilities. With river management, consequences have come along. This kind of river management has lead to things such as, deterioration of water quality, deforestation, water abstraction, flow regulation, and development of human activities in the river basin. Most of these things have lead up to the pollution of river water by domestic and industrial effluents and agricultural runoff. Publication #2 Summary (Only had Abstract and Intro.) :http://www.utoledo.edu/nsm/envsciences/faculty/pdfs/becher-and-gottgens-2012.pdfConference, Proceedings Of The National, et al. “The Impact of Dredging on Heterogeneity and Fish Communities in Agricultural Streams of the Greater Sandusky River Watershed, Ohio.” The Impact of Dredging on Heterogeneity and Fish Communities in Agricultural Streams of the Greater Sandusky River Watershed, Ohio, www.utoledo.edu/nsm/envsciences/faculty/pdfs/becher-and-gottgens-2012.pdf. Headwater streams aid in controlling floods, and transport suspended and dissolved matter. These streams make up around half of the total stream length in the U.S. For native fish species have these rivers have serves as feeding grounds and a nursery habitat. Over the last century a handful of these streams have been dredged into agricultural drainage ditches with straight channels and steep bank slopes. Vegetated benches, meanders and pools have been included in the rivers transformation to a more natural and heterogeneous morphology because of erosion control practices, which have lowered dredging frequencies. A total amount of 6,887 fish belonging to 32 different species were netted in as apart of a 4-year project. From that project it was concluded that ditches might replace important lost fish habitats when dredging is minimized. Adding environmental concerns when working on these channels would be a big help and should be thought about. Agricultural streams are usually straightened to improve their ability to drain farmland. These ditches are apart of the aid in preventing house, businesses, farms, and highways from flooding. Along with those things, these ditches also serve as spawning, and refuge habitat for native fish that were there prior to the development of these channels. Overtime the ditches will begin to create narrower and deeper habitat with shallow stream sections. To help contribute to managing these systems considering advancing in soil conservation and a reduction in dredging would be most important. Publication #3 Summary:https://www.cedarcreek.umn.edu/sites/default/files/public/downloads/t1758.pd”Eutrophication: Impacts of Excess Nutrient Inputs on Freshwater, Marine, and Terrestrial Ecosystems.” Https://Www.cedarcreek.umn.edu, 22 Mar. 1999, www.cedarcreek.umn.edu/sites/default/files/public/downloads/t1758.pd. Freshwater and marine plants both respond to nutrient inputs equally, and over time it has been recorded that these inputs have increased in a large amount over the past two centuries. This type of nutrient enrichment can lead to dramatic and unwanted changes in the ecosystems structure and function. Population growth has increased demands on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, resulting in up to one-half of the land being altered. Human activity has also changed the natural cycle of biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, and have nearly doubled the rate at which nitrogen is being input into the cycle. Many of the inputs into lakes and streams and the ecosystem have affected the balance in which the environment functions. Large amounts of Nitrogen and Phosphates deposits into the landscape are due to human activities such as using lakes and rivers as wastewater disposal systems. Publication #4 Summary:https://era.library.ualberta.ca/files/9880vs143/EA_7_1997_737.pdfApplications, Ecological. “HUMAN ALTERATION OF THE GLOBAL NITROGEN CYCLE: SOURCES AND CONSEQUENCES.” q 1997 By the Ecological Society of America HUMAN ALTERATION OF THE GLOBAL NITROGEN CYCLE: SOURCES AND CONSEQUENCES, era.library.ualberta.ca/files/9880vs143/EA_7_1997_737.pdf. Many of the mobile forms of Nitrogen have consequences on the environment that are important and long term. Nitrogen is the key element in sustaining species composition, diversity, dynamics, and functioning of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Many of the plants and species living in such ecosystems have survived and adapted to the low availability of nitrogen. Humans are changing the global cycles of Nitrogen as a result of fossil-fuels, nitrogen production, and other actions along with these. With changes of the nitrogen cycles comes changes in the global cycle of carbon dioxide. This can affect the rate of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and the response of ecosystems to that change. Nitrate seeps through soils to stream waters and groundwater which depletes soil minerals and acidifying soils. This alters both marine ecosystems and downstream freshwater. Both of these alterations reduce the biological diversity within marine ecosystems within lakes and streams. Most of the enhancement of nitrogen fixation is either closely or directly tied to human activity related to industrial changes that affect the atmosphere. Publication #5 Summary:https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00026568Likens, Gene E. “Acid Rain and Its Effects on Sediments in Lakes and Streams.”SpringerLink, Kluwer Academic Publishers, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00026568. In recent decades due to human activities wet and dry deposition of acidic substances have been released into the atmosphere. Consequently, over large areas of the Northern Temperate Zone the yearly rain average is less than pH 4.5. Moreover, individual rainstorm and fog or cloud- water events pH values lies at points less at points less than 3. Due to these major effects North American and European lakes a streams have become so acidified that they are no longer able to support sufficient populations of fish along with other organisms. The acid rain could possibly have effects in lakes and streams in different ways such as, sediment-water exchange of metals, nitrogen and phosphorus, and metals and sulfur. All of these elements could be affected if the acid rain continues at a rate it is now. Complex biochemical interactions are one of the causes that lead to the acid deposition on the lake and streams ecosystems. The continuation of acid rain on the pH value streak that it is going on could affect how lakes and streams provided humans, animals and other organism with natural supplies, nutrients, and usage.