Uncertainty strict laws, rules, regulations, and controls. Individuals

Uncertainty
avoidance makes reference to a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and
ambiguity, and it indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to
feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured (novel, unknown,
surprising or different from usual) situations. In order to reduce the
uncertainty, uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of
such situations by strict laws, rules, regulations, and controls. Individuals
living in this culture are also more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous
energy. On the other hand, uncertainty accepting cultures have more tolerance
for a variety of opinions for being less rule-oriented, for more readily
accepting change, and taking more and greater risks. Individuals within these
cultures are more reflective, and they are not expected to express emotions by
using their environment. Moreover, on the work-related level, Hofstede noted
that in the uncertainty avoiding cultures, longer career commitment was
expected and valued, while in the uncertainty accepting cultures, individuals
are more likely to expect challenges, risks, and flexibility. (Ning, 2006)

To sum up, value
of stability is desired in uncertainty avoidance culture, while values of
mobility and challenge are highlighted in uncertainty acceptance culture
(Hofstede, 1980).

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      i.       
Long- vs. short-term
orientation

 Long- vs. short-term orientation refers to the
extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future oriented perspective
rather than a conventional historic or short term point of view. By studying
the students from 23 countries, Hofstede (1988) pointed out that Asian
countries scored highest on this dimension, while most western countries scored
comparably low. He stated that long-term orientation countries believed in many
truths and had a long term orientation, while cultures scoring low on this
dimension believed in absolute truth, were traditional and had a short term
orientation. Moreover, Hofstede (1988) showed that long-term orientation
countries defined virtuous work-related behaviors as affective to acquire
skills and education, working hard, and being patient. In the work related
aspects, they tend to concern more about long-term benefits, both financially
and psychologically and valued long-term commitment towards organizations and
career. In the contrast, individuals from short-term oriented cultures tend to
pursue instant benefits and satisfaction.