Writing and other practices: 5 5. CHARACTERISTICS OF

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Writing
Hypothesis

 

 

 

Prepared By

Razhan Mahdi Sabr

Advisor:

Prof. Dr. Abdulla Yusif

 

 

 

 

 

The University of Sulaimani

Department of Civil
Engineering

 Fall, 2017

 

Table of Content

Contents
Table of Content 2
Abstract: 3
Introduction: 3
Research
problem: 3
Research
Aim: 3
1.1.       Meaning. 3
1.2.       Importance
of the Hypotheses: 2
3.TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS: 3
3.1.
Research hypothesis: 3
3.2.
Directional hypothesis: 3
3.3.
Statistical hypothesis: 3
3.4.
Non-directional hypothesis: 3
3.5.
Declarative hypothesis: 3
3.6.
Null hypothesis: 4
3.7.
Question form hypothesis: 4
4.
FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS: 4
4.1.
Richness of background knowledge. 4
4.2.
Versatility of intellect: 4
4.3.
Analogy and other practices: 5
5.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS: 5
Conclusion: 6
References 6
 

 

 

Abstract:

this report aims to present information about writing of hypothesis. first
we discuss the meaning of hypothesis then we show some definition of hypothesis
according to some of the authors and writers of book of methodology. then when
we can get information to writing the hypothesis, we also studied that there are important qualities of
hypotheses which distinguish them from other forms of statement, all types of
hypothesis discussed then characteristics of it.

 

Introduction:

One of the most important
considerations when beginning your research work and formulating the research
problem is constructing the hypothesis. Generally, hypothesis provides clarity
so that you can focus on a research problem. However, this is not essential for
a study or research work. A researcher can conduct a valid investigation
without constructing a hypothesis. However, it is always good to construct a
hypothesis as it will help to narrow down your focus of research. The
significance of a hypothesis lies in its ability to bring direction and
specificity to your research work.

A hypothesis,
as a tentative hunch, explains the situation under observation so as to design
the study to prove or disprove it. What a researcher is looking for is a
working or positive hypothesis. It is very difficult, laborious and time
consuming to make adequate discriminations in the complex interplay of facts
without hypothesis. It gives definite point and direction to the study,
prevents blind search and indiscriminate gathering of data and helps to delimit
the field of inquiry.

 

Research problem:

Describe
the functions and identify the characteristic of a hypothesis.

 

Research Aim:

·       
Identify what is a
hypothesis.

·       
Describe the types
of hypothesis.

 

1.      HYPOTHESIS:

1.1.      Meaning

            The word hypothesis (plural is hypotheses) is derived from
the Greek word ‘hypotithenai’ meaning ‘to put under’ or ‘to suppose’ for
a hypothesis to be put forward as a scientific hypothesis, the scientific
method requires that one can test it. Etymologically hypothesis is made up of
two words, “hypo” (less than) and “thesis”, which mean less than or less
certain than a thesis. It is the presumptive statement of a proposition or a
reasonable guess, based upon the available evidence, which the researcher seeks
to prove through his study.

 

According to Lundberg, “A
hypothesis is a tentative generalization, the validity of which remains to be
tested. In its mostelementary stage, the hypothesis may be any hunch, guess, imaginative
idea, which becomes the basis for action or investigation.

 

A hypothesis is a tentative
assumption drawn from knowledge and theory which is used as a guide in the
investigation of other facts and theories that are yet unknown.

A hypothesis is therefore a astute
and smart guess, a supposition, inference, hunch, provisional statement or
hesitant generalization as to the existence of some fact, condition or relationship
relative to some phenomenon which serves to explain already known facts in a
given area of research and to guide the search for new truth on the basis of
empirical evidence. The hypothesis is put to test for its tenability and for
determining its validity. (Best J.W, 2009)

 

 

1.2.     
Importance of the
Hypotheses:

The importance of hypotheses is
generally recognized more in the studies which aim to make predictions about
some outcome. In experimental research, the researchers is interested in making
predictions about the outcome of the experiment or what the results are
expected to show and therefore the role of hypotheses is considered to be of
utmost importance.

The importance of hypotheses may
be summarized as under:

·       
Hypotheses facilitate the extension of knowledge in an area.
They provide tentative explanations of facts and phenomena, and can be tested
and validated. It sensitizes the investigator to certain aspects of situations
which are relevant from the standpoint of the problem in hand.

·       
Hypotheses provide the researcher with rational statements,
consisting of elements expressed in a logical order of relationships which seek
to describe or to explain conditions or events, that have not yet been
confirmed by facts. The hypotheses enable the researcher to relate logically
known facts to intelligent guesses about unknown conditions. It is a guide to
the thinking process and the process of discovery. It is the investigator’s eye
– a sort of guiding light in the work of darkness.

·       
Hypotheses provide direction to the research. It defines
what is relevant and what is irrelevant. The hypotheses tell the researcher
specifically what he needs to do and find out in his study. Thus it prevents
the review of irrelevant literature and the collection of useless or excess
data. Hypotheses provide a basis for selecting the sample and the research
procedures to be used in the study. The statistical techniques needed in the
analysis of data, and the relationships between the variables to be tested, are
also implied by the hypotheses. Furthermore, the hypotheses help the researcher
to delimit his study in scope so that it does not become broad or unwieldy.

·       
Hypotheses provide the basis for reporting the conclusions
of the study. It serves as a framework for drawing conclusions. The researcher
will find it very convenient to test each hypothesis separately and state the
conclusions that are relevant to each. On the basis of these conclusions, he
can make the research report interesting and meaningful to the reader. It
provides the outline for setting conclusions in a meaningful way. (Best J.W,
2009)

Hypothesis has a very significant
place in research although it inhabits a very small pace in the body of a
thesis. It is almost impossible for a research worker not to have one or more
hypotheses before proceeding with his work. (W, 2009)

 

2. SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS:

The conclusion of a good hypothesis
stresses characteristic of knowledge and creativity. Though hypothesis should
precede the gathering of data, a good hypothesis can come only from experience.
Some degree of data meeting, the assessment of related literature, or a experimental
study must precede the development and gradual refinement of the hypothesis.

The various
sources of hypotheses may be:

·       
 Review
of similar studies in the area or of the studies on similar problems.

·       
Examination of data and records,
if available, concerning the problem for possible trends, peculiarities and
other clues.

·       
Discussions with colleagues
and experts about the problem, its origin and the objectives in seeking a
solution.

·       
Exploratory personal
investigation which involves original field interviews on a limited scale with
interested parties and individuals with a view to secure greater insight into
the practical aspects of the problem.

·       
Intuition is often considered
a reasonable source of research hypotheses especially when it is the intuition
of a well-known researcher or theoretician who “knows what is known”

·       
Rational Induction is often
used to form “new hypotheses” by logically combining the empirical findings
from separate areas of research

·       
Previous empirical research discoveries
are perhaps the most common source of new research hypotheses, especially when sensibly
combined using rational training.

·       
Thus hypothesis are expressed
as a result of previous thinking about the subject, inspection of the available
data and material plus related studies and the council of specialists. (C.R, 2009)

 

3.TYPES
OF HYPOTHESIS:

3.1. Research hypothesis:

When a prediction or a
hypothesized

relationship is to be tested by
scientific methods, it is termed as research hypothesis. The research
hypothesis is a predictive statement that relates an independent variable to a dependent
variable. Usually a research hypothesis must contain, at least, one independent
and one dependent variable. A research hypothesis must be stated in a testable
form for its proper evaluation. As already stressed, this form should indicate
a relationship between the variables in clear, concise, and understandable
language. Research hypotheses are classified as being directional or non-directional. (S, 2007)

 

3.2. Directional hypothesis:

The hypotheses which stipulate
the

direction of the expected differences
or relationships are terms as directional hypotheses. For example, the research
hypothesis: “There will be a positive relationship between individual’s
attitude towards high caste Hindus and his socioeconomic status,” is a directional
research hypothesis. This hypothesis stipulates that individuals with favorable
attitude towards high caste Hindus will generally come from higher socio-economic
Hindu families and therefore it does stipulate the direction of the relationship.
Similarly, the hypothesis: “Adolescent boys with high IQ will exhibit low
anxiety than adolescent boys with low IQ” is a directional research hypothesis
because it stipulates the direction of the difference between groups. (S, 2007)

 

3.3. Statistical hypothesis:

When it is time to test whether
the data support or refute the research hypothesis, it needs to be translated
into a statistical hypothesis. A statistical hypothesis is given in statistical
terms. Technically, in the context of inferential statistics, it is a statement
about one or more parameters that are measures of the populations under study.
Statistical hypotheses often are given in quantitative terms, for example: “The
mean reading achievement of the population of third-grade students
taught by Method A equals the mean reading achievement of the population
taught by Method B.” Therefore, we can say that statistical hypotheses are,
concerned with populations under study. We use inferential statistics, to draw
conclusions about population values even though we have access to only a sample
of participants. In order to use inferential statistics, we need to translate
the research hypothesis into a testable form, which is called the null
hypothesis. An alternative or declarative hypothesis indicates the situation
corresponding to when the null hypothesis is not true. The stated hypothesis
will differ depending on whether or not it is a directional research
hypothesis. (S, 2007)

 

3.4. Non-directional hypothesis:

A research hypothesis which does
not specify the direction of expected differences or relationships is a
non-directional research hypothesis. For example, the hypotheses: “There will
be difference in the adaptability of fathers and mothers towards rearing of
their children” or “There is a difference in the anxiety level of adolescent girls
of high IQ and low IQ” are non-directional research hypotheses. Although these
hypotheses stipulate there will be a difference, the direction of the
difference is not specified. A research hypothesis can take either statistical form,
declarative form, the null form, or the question form. (S, 2007)

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5. Declarative hypothesis:

When the researcher makes a
positive statement about the outcome of the study, the hypothesis takes the declarative
form. For example, the hypothesis: “The academic achievement of extroverts is significantly
higher than that of the introverts,” is stated in the declarative form. In such
a statement of hypothesis, the researcher makes a prediction based on his
theoretical formulations of what should happen if the explanations of the
behavior he has given in his theory are correct. (S, 2007)

 

3.6. Null hypothesis:

In the null form, the researcher
makes a statement that no relationship exists. The hypothesis, “There is no
significant difference between the academic achievement of high school athletes
and that of non-athletes,” is an example of null hypothesis. Since null
hypotheses can be tested statistically, they are often termed as statistical hypotheses.
They are also called the testing hypotheses when declarative hypotheses are
tested statistically by converting them into null form. It states that even
where it seems to hold good it is due to mere chance. It is for the researcher to
reject the null hypothesis by showing that the outcome mentioned in the
declarative hypothesis does occur and the quantum of it issuch that it cannot be
easily dismissed as having occurred by chance. (S, 2007)

 

3.7. Question form hypothesis:

In the question form hypothesis,
a question is asked as to what the outcome will be instead of

stating what outcome is expected.
Suppose a researcher is interested in knowing whether programmed instruction
has any relationship to test anxiety of children.

·       
The declarative form of the hypothesis might be: “Teaching
children through the programmed instruction material will decrease their test
anxiety”.

·       
The null form would be: “teaching children through
programmed instruction material will have no effect on their test anxiety.’
This statement shows that no relationship exists between programmed instruction
and test anxiety.

·       
The question form puts the statement in the form: “Will
teaching children through programmed instruction decrease their test anxiety?” (S, 2007)

 

4. FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS:

Hypotheses are guesses or tentative
generalizations, but these guesses are not merely accidents. Collection of
factual information alone does not lead to successful formulation of
hypotheses. Hypotheses are the products of considerable speculation and imaginative
guess work. They are based partly on known facts and explanations, and partly conceptual.
There are no precise rules for formulating hypotheses and deducing consequences
from them that can be empirically verified. However, there are certain
necessary conditions that are conducive to their formulation. (McBurney,
2007)

 

4.1. Richness of background knowledge.

A researcher may deduce
hypotheses inductively after making observations of behavior, noticing trends
or probable relationships. Background knowledge, however, is essential for perceiving
relationships among the variables and to determine what findings other
researchers have reported on the problem under study. New knowledge, new
discoveries, and new inventions should always form continuity with the already existing
corpus of knowledge and, therefore, it becomes all the more essential to be
well versed with the already existing knowledge. Hypotheses may be formulated
correctly by persons who have rich experiences and academic background, but
they can never be formulated by those who have poor background knowledge. (McBurney,
2007)

 

 

 

 

 

4.2. Versatility of intellect:

Hypotheses are also derived
through deductive reasoning from a theory. Such hypotheses are called deductive
hypotheses. A researcher may begin a study by electing one of the theories in his
own area of interest. After selecting the particular theory, the researcher
proceeds to deduce a hypothesis from this theory through symbolic logic or mathematics.
This is possible only when the researcher has a versatile intellect and can
make use of it for restructuring his experiences. Creative imagination is the
product of an adventure, sound attitude and agile intellect. In the hypotheses
formulation, the researcher works on numerous paths. He has to take a
consistent effort and develop certain habits and attitudes. Moreover, the
researcher has to saturate himself with all possible information about the problem
and then think liberally at it and proceed further in the conduct of the study. (McBurney,
2007)

 

4.3. Analogy and other practices:

Analogies also lead the
researcher

to clues that he might find
useful in the formulation of hypotheses and for finding solutions to problems.
For example, suppose a new situation resembles an old situation in regard to a factor
X. If the researcher knows from previous experience that the old situation is
related to other factors Y and Z as well as to X, he reasons that perhaps a new
situation is also related to Y and Z. The researcher, however, should use
analogies with caution as they are not fool proof tools for finding solutions
to problems. At times, conversations and consultations with colleagues and expert
from different fields are also helpful in formulating important and useful
hypotheses. (McBurney, 2007)

 

5. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS:

Hypothesis must possess the
following characteristics:

i) Hypothesis should be clear and
precise. If the hypothesis is not clear and precise, the inferences drawn on
its basis cannot be taken as reliable. (C.R, 2009)

ii) Hypothesis should be capable
of being tested. Some prior study may be done by researcher in order to make
hypothesis a testable one. A hypothesis “is testable if other deductions can be
made from it which, in turn, can be confirmed or disproved by observation.”

iii) Hypothesis should state
relationship between variables, if it happens to be a relational hypothesis. (C.R, 2009)

iv) Hypothesis should be limited
in scope and must be specific. A researcher must remember that narrower
hypotheses are generally more testable and he should develop such hypotheses.

v) Hypothesis should be stated
as far as possible in most simple terms so that the same is easily
understandable by all concerned. But one must remember that simplicity of hypothesis
has nothing to do with its significance. (S, 2007)

vi) Hypothesis should be
consistent with most known facts i.e. it must be consistent with a substantial
body of established facts. In other words, it should be one which judges accept
as being the most likely.

vii) The hypotheses
selected should be amenable to testing within a reasonable time. The researcher
should not select a problem which involves hypotheses that are not agreeable to
testing within a reasonable and specified time. He must know that there are problems
that cannot be solved for a long time to come. These are problems of immense
difficulty that cannot be profitably studied because of the lack of essential techniques
or measures. (Best J.W, 2009)

viii) Hypothesis must explain
the facts that gave rise to the need for explanation. This means that by using
the hypothesis plus other known and accepted generalizations, one should be able
to deduce the original problem condition. Thus hypothesis must actually explain
what it claims to explain, it should have empirical reference. (Kaul, (2004))

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion:

It is important for the researcher
to formulate hypotheses before data are gathered. This is necessary for an
objective and unbiased study. It should be evident from what you have read so
far that in order to carry out research; you need to start by identifying a question
which demands an answer, or a need which requires a solution. The problem can
be generated either by an initiating idea, or by a perceived problem area. We
also studied that there are important qualities of hypotheses which distinguish
them from other forms of statement. A good hypothesis is a very useful aid to organizing
the research effort. It specifically limits the enquiry to the interaction of
certain variables; it suggests the methods appropriated for collecting,
analyzing and interpreting the data; and the resultant confirmation or
rejection of the hypothesis through empirical or experimental testing gives a
clear indication of the extent of knowledge gained. The hypothesis must be
conceptually clear. The concepts utilized in the hypothesis should be clearly
defined not only formally but also if possible, operationally. A
hypothesis is generally a speculative statement that needs to be verified in a
research work. During hypothesis formulation, it is important to keep the
statement simple, precise and clear, and derive it from an existing body of
knowledge.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
References

Best J.W, K. J. (2009). Research in education
(Vol. tenth). (D. Kindersley, Ed.) New Delhi.: Pvt Ltd.
C.R, K. (2009). Research methodology methods and.
New Delhi: New age international (P).
Kaul, L. ((2004)). Methodology of educational
research (Vol. third). New Delhi: UBS Publishers’ Distributors Pvt Ltd.
McBurney. (2007). Research methods. delhi:
Akash press.
S, G. (2007). Research methodology and
statistical. new delhi: Deep and Deep publication Pvt Ltd.
W, W. (2009). research methods in education an
(Vol. ninth edition). New Delhi: Jurs S G.