Writing

Hypothesis

Prepared By

Razhan Mahdi Sabr

Advisor:

Prof. Dr. Abdulla Yusif

The University of Sulaimani

Department of Civil

Engineering

Fall, 2017

Table of Content

Contents

Table of Content 2

Abstract: 3

Introduction: 3

Research

problem: 3

Research

Aim: 3

1.1. Meaning. 3

1.2. Importance

of the Hypotheses: 2

3.TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS: 3

3.1.

Research hypothesis: 3

3.2.

Directional hypothesis: 3

3.3.

Statistical hypothesis: 3

3.4.

Non-directional hypothesis: 3

3.5.

Declarative hypothesis: 3

3.6.

Null hypothesis: 4

3.7.

Question form hypothesis: 4

4.

FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS: 4

4.1.

Richness of background knowledge. 4

4.2.

Versatility of intellect: 4

4.3.

Analogy and other practices: 5

5.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS: 5

Conclusion: 6

References 6

Abstract:

this report aims to present information about writing of hypothesis. first

we discuss the meaning of hypothesis then we show some definition of hypothesis

according to some of the authors and writers of book of methodology. then when

we can get information to writing the hypothesis, we also studied that there are important qualities of

hypotheses which distinguish them from other forms of statement, all types of

hypothesis discussed then characteristics of it.

Introduction:

One of the most important

considerations when beginning your research work and formulating the research

problem is constructing the hypothesis. Generally, hypothesis provides clarity

so that you can focus on a research problem. However, this is not essential for

a study or research work. A researcher can conduct a valid investigation

without constructing a hypothesis. However, it is always good to construct a

hypothesis as it will help to narrow down your focus of research. The

significance of a hypothesis lies in its ability to bring direction and

specificity to your research work.

A hypothesis,

as a tentative hunch, explains the situation under observation so as to design

the study to prove or disprove it. What a researcher is looking for is a

working or positive hypothesis. It is very difficult, laborious and time

consuming to make adequate discriminations in the complex interplay of facts

without hypothesis. It gives definite point and direction to the study,

prevents blind search and indiscriminate gathering of data and helps to delimit

the field of inquiry.

Research problem:

Describe

the functions and identify the characteristic of a hypothesis.

Research Aim:

·

Identify what is a

hypothesis.

·

Describe the types

of hypothesis.

1. HYPOTHESIS:

1.1. Meaning

The word hypothesis (plural is hypotheses) is derived from

the Greek word ‘hypotithenai’ meaning ‘to put under’ or ‘to suppose’ for

a hypothesis to be put forward as a scientific hypothesis, the scientific

method requires that one can test it. Etymologically hypothesis is made up of

two words, “hypo” (less than) and “thesis”, which mean less than or less

certain than a thesis. It is the presumptive statement of a proposition or a

reasonable guess, based upon the available evidence, which the researcher seeks

to prove through his study.

According to Lundberg, “A

hypothesis is a tentative generalization, the validity of which remains to be

tested. In its mostelementary stage, the hypothesis may be any hunch, guess, imaginative

idea, which becomes the basis for action or investigation.

A hypothesis is a tentative

assumption drawn from knowledge and theory which is used as a guide in the

investigation of other facts and theories that are yet unknown.

A hypothesis is therefore a astute

and smart guess, a supposition, inference, hunch, provisional statement or

hesitant generalization as to the existence of some fact, condition or relationship

relative to some phenomenon which serves to explain already known facts in a

given area of research and to guide the search for new truth on the basis of

empirical evidence. The hypothesis is put to test for its tenability and for

determining its validity. (Best J.W, 2009)

1.2.

Importance of the

Hypotheses:

The importance of hypotheses is

generally recognized more in the studies which aim to make predictions about

some outcome. In experimental research, the researchers is interested in making

predictions about the outcome of the experiment or what the results are

expected to show and therefore the role of hypotheses is considered to be of

utmost importance.

The importance of hypotheses may

be summarized as under:

·

Hypotheses facilitate the extension of knowledge in an area.

They provide tentative explanations of facts and phenomena, and can be tested

and validated. It sensitizes the investigator to certain aspects of situations

which are relevant from the standpoint of the problem in hand.

·

Hypotheses provide the researcher with rational statements,

consisting of elements expressed in a logical order of relationships which seek

to describe or to explain conditions or events, that have not yet been

confirmed by facts. The hypotheses enable the researcher to relate logically

known facts to intelligent guesses about unknown conditions. It is a guide to

the thinking process and the process of discovery. It is the investigator’s eye

– a sort of guiding light in the work of darkness.

·

Hypotheses provide direction to the research. It defines

what is relevant and what is irrelevant. The hypotheses tell the researcher

specifically what he needs to do and find out in his study. Thus it prevents

the review of irrelevant literature and the collection of useless or excess

data. Hypotheses provide a basis for selecting the sample and the research

procedures to be used in the study. The statistical techniques needed in the

analysis of data, and the relationships between the variables to be tested, are

also implied by the hypotheses. Furthermore, the hypotheses help the researcher

to delimit his study in scope so that it does not become broad or unwieldy.

·

Hypotheses provide the basis for reporting the conclusions

of the study. It serves as a framework for drawing conclusions. The researcher

will find it very convenient to test each hypothesis separately and state the

conclusions that are relevant to each. On the basis of these conclusions, he

can make the research report interesting and meaningful to the reader. It

provides the outline for setting conclusions in a meaningful way. (Best J.W,

2009)

Hypothesis has a very significant

place in research although it inhabits a very small pace in the body of a

thesis. It is almost impossible for a research worker not to have one or more

hypotheses before proceeding with his work. (W, 2009)

2. SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS:

The conclusion of a good hypothesis

stresses characteristic of knowledge and creativity. Though hypothesis should

precede the gathering of data, a good hypothesis can come only from experience.

Some degree of data meeting, the assessment of related literature, or a experimental

study must precede the development and gradual refinement of the hypothesis.

The various

sources of hypotheses may be:

·

Review

of similar studies in the area or of the studies on similar problems.

·

Examination of data and records,

if available, concerning the problem for possible trends, peculiarities and

other clues.

·

Discussions with colleagues

and experts about the problem, its origin and the objectives in seeking a

solution.

·

Exploratory personal

investigation which involves original field interviews on a limited scale with

interested parties and individuals with a view to secure greater insight into

the practical aspects of the problem.

·

Intuition is often considered

a reasonable source of research hypotheses especially when it is the intuition

of a well-known researcher or theoretician who “knows what is known”

·

Rational Induction is often

used to form “new hypotheses” by logically combining the empirical findings

from separate areas of research

·

Previous empirical research discoveries

are perhaps the most common source of new research hypotheses, especially when sensibly

combined using rational training.

·

Thus hypothesis are expressed

as a result of previous thinking about the subject, inspection of the available

data and material plus related studies and the council of specialists. (C.R, 2009)

3.TYPES

OF HYPOTHESIS:

3.1. Research hypothesis:

When a prediction or a

hypothesized

relationship is to be tested by

scientific methods, it is termed as research hypothesis. The research

hypothesis is a predictive statement that relates an independent variable to a dependent

variable. Usually a research hypothesis must contain, at least, one independent

and one dependent variable. A research hypothesis must be stated in a testable

form for its proper evaluation. As already stressed, this form should indicate

a relationship between the variables in clear, concise, and understandable

language. Research hypotheses are classified as being directional or non-directional. (S, 2007)

3.2. Directional hypothesis:

The hypotheses which stipulate

the

direction of the expected differences

or relationships are terms as directional hypotheses. For example, the research

hypothesis: “There will be a positive relationship between individual’s

attitude towards high caste Hindus and his socioeconomic status,” is a directional

research hypothesis. This hypothesis stipulates that individuals with favorable

attitude towards high caste Hindus will generally come from higher socio-economic

Hindu families and therefore it does stipulate the direction of the relationship.

Similarly, the hypothesis: “Adolescent boys with high IQ will exhibit low

anxiety than adolescent boys with low IQ” is a directional research hypothesis

because it stipulates the direction of the difference between groups. (S, 2007)

3.3. Statistical hypothesis:

When it is time to test whether

the data support or refute the research hypothesis, it needs to be translated

into a statistical hypothesis. A statistical hypothesis is given in statistical

terms. Technically, in the context of inferential statistics, it is a statement

about one or more parameters that are measures of the populations under study.

Statistical hypotheses often are given in quantitative terms, for example: “The

mean reading achievement of the population of third-grade students

taught by Method A equals the mean reading achievement of the population

taught by Method B.” Therefore, we can say that statistical hypotheses are,

concerned with populations under study. We use inferential statistics, to draw

conclusions about population values even though we have access to only a sample

of participants. In order to use inferential statistics, we need to translate

the research hypothesis into a testable form, which is called the null

hypothesis. An alternative or declarative hypothesis indicates the situation

corresponding to when the null hypothesis is not true. The stated hypothesis

will differ depending on whether or not it is a directional research

hypothesis. (S, 2007)

3.4. Non-directional hypothesis:

A research hypothesis which does

not specify the direction of expected differences or relationships is a

non-directional research hypothesis. For example, the hypotheses: “There will

be difference in the adaptability of fathers and mothers towards rearing of

their children” or “There is a difference in the anxiety level of adolescent girls

of high IQ and low IQ” are non-directional research hypotheses. Although these

hypotheses stipulate there will be a difference, the direction of the

difference is not specified. A research hypothesis can take either statistical form,

declarative form, the null form, or the question form. (S, 2007)

3.5. Declarative hypothesis:

When the researcher makes a

positive statement about the outcome of the study, the hypothesis takes the declarative

form. For example, the hypothesis: “The academic achievement of extroverts is significantly

higher than that of the introverts,” is stated in the declarative form. In such

a statement of hypothesis, the researcher makes a prediction based on his

theoretical formulations of what should happen if the explanations of the

behavior he has given in his theory are correct. (S, 2007)

3.6. Null hypothesis:

In the null form, the researcher

makes a statement that no relationship exists. The hypothesis, “There is no

significant difference between the academic achievement of high school athletes

and that of non-athletes,” is an example of null hypothesis. Since null

hypotheses can be tested statistically, they are often termed as statistical hypotheses.

They are also called the testing hypotheses when declarative hypotheses are

tested statistically by converting them into null form. It states that even

where it seems to hold good it is due to mere chance. It is for the researcher to

reject the null hypothesis by showing that the outcome mentioned in the

declarative hypothesis does occur and the quantum of it issuch that it cannot be

easily dismissed as having occurred by chance. (S, 2007)

3.7. Question form hypothesis:

In the question form hypothesis,

a question is asked as to what the outcome will be instead of

stating what outcome is expected.

Suppose a researcher is interested in knowing whether programmed instruction

has any relationship to test anxiety of children.

·

The declarative form of the hypothesis might be: “Teaching

children through the programmed instruction material will decrease their test

anxiety”.

·

The null form would be: “teaching children through

programmed instruction material will have no effect on their test anxiety.’

This statement shows that no relationship exists between programmed instruction

and test anxiety.

·

The question form puts the statement in the form: “Will

teaching children through programmed instruction decrease their test anxiety?” (S, 2007)

4. FORMULATING HYPOTHESIS:

Hypotheses are guesses or tentative

generalizations, but these guesses are not merely accidents. Collection of

factual information alone does not lead to successful formulation of

hypotheses. Hypotheses are the products of considerable speculation and imaginative

guess work. They are based partly on known facts and explanations, and partly conceptual.

There are no precise rules for formulating hypotheses and deducing consequences

from them that can be empirically verified. However, there are certain

necessary conditions that are conducive to their formulation. (McBurney,

2007)

4.1. Richness of background knowledge.

A researcher may deduce

hypotheses inductively after making observations of behavior, noticing trends

or probable relationships. Background knowledge, however, is essential for perceiving

relationships among the variables and to determine what findings other

researchers have reported on the problem under study. New knowledge, new

discoveries, and new inventions should always form continuity with the already existing

corpus of knowledge and, therefore, it becomes all the more essential to be

well versed with the already existing knowledge. Hypotheses may be formulated

correctly by persons who have rich experiences and academic background, but

they can never be formulated by those who have poor background knowledge. (McBurney,

2007)

4.2. Versatility of intellect:

Hypotheses are also derived

through deductive reasoning from a theory. Such hypotheses are called deductive

hypotheses. A researcher may begin a study by electing one of the theories in his

own area of interest. After selecting the particular theory, the researcher

proceeds to deduce a hypothesis from this theory through symbolic logic or mathematics.

This is possible only when the researcher has a versatile intellect and can

make use of it for restructuring his experiences. Creative imagination is the

product of an adventure, sound attitude and agile intellect. In the hypotheses

formulation, the researcher works on numerous paths. He has to take a

consistent effort and develop certain habits and attitudes. Moreover, the

researcher has to saturate himself with all possible information about the problem

and then think liberally at it and proceed further in the conduct of the study. (McBurney,

2007)

4.3. Analogy and other practices:

Analogies also lead the

researcher

to clues that he might find

useful in the formulation of hypotheses and for finding solutions to problems.

For example, suppose a new situation resembles an old situation in regard to a factor

X. If the researcher knows from previous experience that the old situation is

related to other factors Y and Z as well as to X, he reasons that perhaps a new

situation is also related to Y and Z. The researcher, however, should use

analogies with caution as they are not fool proof tools for finding solutions

to problems. At times, conversations and consultations with colleagues and expert

from different fields are also helpful in formulating important and useful

hypotheses. (McBurney, 2007)

5. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS:

Hypothesis must possess the

following characteristics:

i) Hypothesis should be clear and

precise. If the hypothesis is not clear and precise, the inferences drawn on

its basis cannot be taken as reliable. (C.R, 2009)

ii) Hypothesis should be capable

of being tested. Some prior study may be done by researcher in order to make

hypothesis a testable one. A hypothesis “is testable if other deductions can be

made from it which, in turn, can be confirmed or disproved by observation.”

iii) Hypothesis should state

relationship between variables, if it happens to be a relational hypothesis. (C.R, 2009)

iv) Hypothesis should be limited

in scope and must be specific. A researcher must remember that narrower

hypotheses are generally more testable and he should develop such hypotheses.

v) Hypothesis should be stated

as far as possible in most simple terms so that the same is easily

understandable by all concerned. But one must remember that simplicity of hypothesis

has nothing to do with its significance. (S, 2007)

vi) Hypothesis should be

consistent with most known facts i.e. it must be consistent with a substantial

body of established facts. In other words, it should be one which judges accept

as being the most likely.

vii) The hypotheses

selected should be amenable to testing within a reasonable time. The researcher

should not select a problem which involves hypotheses that are not agreeable to

testing within a reasonable and specified time. He must know that there are problems

that cannot be solved for a long time to come. These are problems of immense

difficulty that cannot be profitably studied because of the lack of essential techniques

or measures. (Best J.W, 2009)

viii) Hypothesis must explain

the facts that gave rise to the need for explanation. This means that by using

the hypothesis plus other known and accepted generalizations, one should be able

to deduce the original problem condition. Thus hypothesis must actually explain

what it claims to explain, it should have empirical reference. (Kaul, (2004))

Conclusion:

It is important for the researcher

to formulate hypotheses before data are gathered. This is necessary for an

objective and unbiased study. It should be evident from what you have read so

far that in order to carry out research; you need to start by identifying a question

which demands an answer, or a need which requires a solution. The problem can

be generated either by an initiating idea, or by a perceived problem area. We

also studied that there are important qualities of hypotheses which distinguish

them from other forms of statement. A good hypothesis is a very useful aid to organizing

the research effort. It specifically limits the enquiry to the interaction of

certain variables; it suggests the methods appropriated for collecting,

analyzing and interpreting the data; and the resultant confirmation or

rejection of the hypothesis through empirical or experimental testing gives a

clear indication of the extent of knowledge gained. The hypothesis must be

conceptually clear. The concepts utilized in the hypothesis should be clearly

defined not only formally but also if possible, operationally. A

hypothesis is generally a speculative statement that needs to be verified in a

research work. During hypothesis formulation, it is important to keep the

statement simple, precise and clear, and derive it from an existing body of

knowledge.

References

Best J.W, K. J. (2009). Research in education

(Vol. tenth). (D. Kindersley, Ed.) New Delhi.: Pvt Ltd.

C.R, K. (2009). Research methodology methods and.

New Delhi: New age international (P).

Kaul, L. ((2004)). Methodology of educational

research (Vol. third). New Delhi: UBS Publishers’ Distributors Pvt Ltd.

McBurney. (2007). Research methods. delhi:

Akash press.

S, G. (2007). Research methodology and

statistical. new delhi: Deep and Deep publication Pvt Ltd.

W, W. (2009). research methods in education an

(Vol. ninth edition). New Delhi: Jurs S G.